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Overlay Fact Sheet

What is a web accessibility overlay?

Overlays are a broad term for technologies that aim to improve the accessibility of a website. They apply third-party source code (typically JavaScript) to make improvements to the front-end code of the website.

Website add-on products claiming to improve accessibility go back to the late 1990s with products like Readspeaker and Browsealoud. They added text-to-speech capabilities to the website(s) on which they were installed.

Then similar products came to market that added more tools to their software. These allow user-based control of things like font-sizes and colors to improve readability.

Some newer overlay products aim to fix any problems in the site's code that are preventing assistive technology from being used easily. They apply a script to the page which scans the code and automatically attempts to repair the problem.

Products like Userway, EqualWeb, AudioEye, User1st, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, Purple Lens, and accessiBe are known as accessibility overlays. They are sometimes white labelled (sold under other names), so this is not a complete list of the type of products discussed on this page.

Strengths and weaknesses of overlay “widgets”

Overlay widgets are unnecessary and are poorly placed in the technology stack.

As stated above, some overlay products contain widgets which present a series of controls that modify the presentation of the page they're on. Depending on the product, those changes may do things like change the page contrast, enlarge the size of the page's text, or perform other changes to the page that are intended to improve the experience for users with disabilities.

To laypersons, these features may seem beneficial, but their practical value is largely overstated because the end users that these features claim to serve will already have the necessary features on their computer, either as a built-in feature or as an additional piece of software that the user needs to access not only the Web but all software.

On this latter point, it is a mistake to believe that the features provided by the overlay widget will be of much use by end users because if those features were necessary to use the website, they'd be needed for all websites that the user interacts with. Instead, the widget is  —at best—redundant functionality with what the user already has.

Strengths and weaknesses of automated repair

While some automated repair is possible, customers should be discouraged from using an overlay as a long-term solution.

Some overlay products have capabilities aimed at providing accessibility repairs to the underlying page on which the overlay is added. These repairs are applied when the page loads in the user's browser.

While it is true that a non-trivial array of accessibility problems can be repaired in this manner, the nature, extent, and accuracy of such repair are limited by a number of important factors:

In addition to the above, overlays do not repair content in Flash, Java, Silverlight, PDF, HTML5 Canvas, SVG, or media files.

An additional class of product exists, which only perform automated repairs and are marketed as a temporary solution. These include Amaze by Deque Systems, Alchemy by Level Access, and Sentinel by Tenon.

For purposes of this document, these products aren't considered to be in the same class of product as the overlays that provide widgets. The most notable difference, beyond the lack of a “widget” is that Amaze, Alchemy, and Sentinel are understood by their manufacturers as being intended for use as an interim solution.

Fitness for achieving compliance with accessibility standards

While the use of an overlay may improve compliance with a handful of provisions in major accessibility standards, full compliance cannot be achieved with an overlay.

Among the many claims made by overlay vendors is the claim that the use of their product will bring the site into compliance with accessibility standards such as WCAG 2.x, related and derivative standards, and laws that mandate compliance with those standards.

Conformance to a standard means that you meet or satisfy the ‘requirements’ of the standard. In WCAG 2.0 the ‘requirements’ are the Success Criteria. To conform to WCAG 2.0, you need to satisfy the Success Criteria, that is, there is no content which violates the Success Criteria. Understanding WCAG 2.1: Understanding Conformance

Given that conformance is defined as meeting all requirements of the standard, these products' documented inability to repair all possible issues means that they cannot bring a website into compliance. Products marketed with such claims should be viewed with significant scepticism.

Privacy of personal data

Adding an overlay to your site may run counter to end users' preference for privacy and may create risk of noncompliance with GDPR, UK GDPR, CCPA, et al.

Overlays that automatically enable certain settings, like those for screen reader or speech recognition users, do so by detecting when an assistive technology is running on the device. This exposes the fact that the person using the device at the time has a disability. In certain cases, like screen reader users where the majority are blind or have low vision, it exposes even more detail about the nature of their disability. Like age, ethnic background, or preferred gender, disability is sensitive personal information. It is not data that should be collected without the informed consent of the person it belongs to.

Some overlays have been found to persist users' settings across sites which use the same overlay. This is done by setting a cookie on the user's computer. When the user enables a setting for an overlay feature on one site, the overlay will automatically turn on that feature on other sites. While the overlay company might think they're doing good by the end user, the big privacy problem is that the user never opted in to be tracked and there's also no ability to opt-out. Due to this lack of an opt-out (other than explicitly turning off that setting) this creates General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) risk for the overlay customer.

In their own words

Many users with disabilities have expressed strong words of dissatisfaction with overlay products. As shown below, overlays themselves may have accessibility problems significant enough for users to take steps to actively block overlays from appearing at all.

Please note: while this section may mention specific vendors, these comments are par-for-the-course when it comes to the user experience provided by overlay widgets which have, in themselves, a pattern of negatively impacting the user experience.

...assuming your tool can do a good job making something accessible, it can do an even better job making something accessible running directly on the user's machine having access to machine code and machine APIs DerekRiemer
...I finally managed to gain access to my @NameCheap account by blocking #AccessiBe in my Windows Hosts file. I should not need to do this to use the Internet. AccessiBe needs to AccessiBeGone WilfSplodNokit
...I know with 100% certainty, any site which has deployed an overlay in the past year and a half has been less useable for both my wife and me—both blind. GeauxEnder
...Still a pain to even try reading the article on a mobile device because of the constant interruption every few seconds. Considering every site using your service also has this problem… Nope. Big_D01
...Making a webpage accessible does take work, and simply telling a business they can install your plugin is absolutely foolish, you build, and design accessibility in to a webpage using WCAG standards. w9fyi
...Suggesting one line of code is cheap so you should do it by inference suggests disabled lives aren't worth investing in either. #a11y Kevmarmol_CT
@AccessiBe Just to demonstrate my good faith, here's a quick free audit of https://t.co/1mQGCCtnIs. You capture "tab" which is the standard way to navigate. There's no way to not enable your overlay if I want to navigate the page. Once the overlay is enabled, wild things happen. eluberoff
#AccessiBe makes sites harder to use by getting in the way of browsing and changing access barriers on a page, not fixing them. A student and I came across an "enhanced" website and to my shame, we left because navigating that mess was beyond my skills, on that day. turtlecatpurrz
Accessibility overlays are not the answer, and AccessiBe is no exception. As a screen reader user, numerous sites have become less usable for me with this overlay. Discrediting reputable accessiblity professionals and advocates will not sway me on this view. https://t.co/ZgFt8JtsbZ SingingTigress
An die Screen Reader nutzenden Follower: Vielleicht habt ihr schon von #Accessibe gehört, einem Overlay, das behauptet, Seiten, in denen es eingebunden ist, zugänglicher zu machen. Ich möchte nicht näher ins Detail gehen. Kurz gesagt: Kompletter Blödsinn. Finger weg! MarcoZehe
Automated solutions which promise to make your site accessible can't. It takes more than automation to achieve this requirement. You won't be safe from liability. you will almost assuredly negatively impact your customers with disabilities. twithoff
Every time I go on a website and I hear the #accessiBe notification that this site is adjusted to my screen reader, I know that my blocker isn't working properly, and I'm in for a hellish experience on that particular website. https://t.co/ZFzKMfUe0t BorrisInABox
I tried using this @AccessiBe site with VoiceOver in Chrome on iOS. The 4-star rating is announced as "unpronounceable" 🤦‍♀️ https://t.co/f4MxQ2eLLP" racheleditullio
I wrote an email to their customer service detailing that I can not use their site due to the overlay, but… I really am disappointed, but I hope they listen. @Goodfair_ - please stop using AccessiBe. kit_flowerstorm
I'm not an accessibility expert, just a screen reader user with decent skills telling you that this thread is spot on and my experience with #AccessiBe is that it makes sites with accessibility issues even harder to work around. https://t.co/cfyrEqXwTy atfarnum
...If you are blind or low vision and rely on assistive technologies like screen readers, you may have begun finding popular websites becoming less usable… this page describes how to ban AccessiBe from ever reaching your computer… https://t.co/qbiKvolizS smartudlab
OK, this seems very wrong to me. A local chain here named Fleet Farm is now using AccessiBe. It makes a mess of the search for location feature. This is what I now get on the start of the result page. kellylford
Thank goodness Firefox blocks their accessibility detection. For me, focus jumps all over the place with #AccessiBe enabled. When it's disabled, it behaves itself. mhorspool
There are 0 automated tools that can tetect accessibility problems accurately at anything above 30% of the time. 0. This is commonly known by anyone who's been in this space for at least a week. #AccessiBe cswordpress
There's a perfectly practical tool for making websites accessible. It's called a programmer. The needs that matter in making a website accessible are those of the users. If you can't meet those, then you can't meet the basic costs of doing business. WTBDavidG
When #AccessiBe is enabled, the page is flooded with headings. Lots of heading level 2's. The title of each phone remains a heading in both versions of the page, but with it enabled, things like cost, display, and all the other components of the tables become headings as well. CatchTheseWords

Conclusion

No overlay product on the market can cause a website to become fully compliant with any existing accessibility standard and therefore cannot eliminate legal risk.

Accessibility on the Web is a big challenge, both for owners of websites and for the users of those websites. The invention of novel approaches to resolving this challenge is to be commended.

However, in the case of overlays—especially those which attempt to add widgets that present assistive features—the challenge is not being met. Even more problematic is the deceptive marketing provided by some overlay vendors who promise that implementing their product will give their customer's sites immediate compliance with laws and standards.

The ineffectiveness of overlays is something that has broad agreement among accessibility practitioners, per the WebAIM Survey of Web Accessibility Practitioners which found:

A strong majority (67%) of respondents rate these tools as not at all or not very effective. Respondents with disabilities were even less favorable with 72% rating them not at all or not very effective, and only 2.4% rating them as very effective.

Statement from sponsors and signatories to this fact sheet

As a result of the above information:

  1. We will never advocate, recommend, or integrate an overlay which deceptively markets itself as providing automated compliance with laws or standards.
  2. We will always advocate for the remediation of accessibility issues at the source of the original error.
  3. We will refuse to stay silent when overlay vendors use deception to market their products.
  4. More specifically, we hereby advocate for the removal of accessiBe, AudioEye, UserWay, User1st, MK-Sense, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, and all similar products and encourage the site owners who've implemented these products to use more robust, independent, and permanent strategies to making their sites more accessible.

Signed by:

Some overlay vendors have attempted to frame the overlay factsheet as an effort by their competitors to discredit them. Such overlay claims are a textbook case of an attempt to gaslight people to deflect criticism.

As of today, the signatories to the overlay factsheet include:

In short, the list of signatories below are people who are experts in this field & have dedicated their professional careers to the improvement of accessibility or are end users with disabilities (or both). Discounting the names listed below as "competitors" is both inaccurate and misses the point: overlays are not an effective means of ensuring accessibility - a point on which all of the people below agree.

  1. Karl Groves, Founder and President, Tenon.io
  2. Matt King, Chair, W3C ARIA Authoring Practices Task Force and W3C ARIA and Assistive Technologies Community Group
  3. Bill Dengler, totally blind computer science student and code contributor to the NVDA screen reader, Swarthmore College, Philadelphia
  4. Nicolas Steenhout, Independent accessibility consultant
  5. Rian Rietveld, web accessibility specialist, Level Level
  6. Weston Thayer, Founder, Assistiv Labs
  7. Denis Boudreau, Accessibility consultant
  8. Meryl K. Evans, accessibility advocate
  9. Makoto Ueki, Web accessibility consultant, Infoaxia
  10. Michael Spellacy, Accessibility Consultant
  11. Helen Burge, Accessibility Consultant
  12. Léonie Watson, Director, TetraLogical
  13. Eric Eggert, Co-Founder, outline
  14. Dale Reardon - Founder & CEO of TravelForAll.Guide
  15. Bram Duvigneau, Co-Founder, Firm Ground
  16. Jason Gill - Certified Web Accessibility Specialist
  17. Michael Ausbun, CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  18. Ronny Hendriks - Accessibility Consultant, Toegankelijk Online
  19. Charles Hall, Invited Expert W3C AGWG
  20. Hai Nguyen Ly, Accessibility Advocate
  21. David Luhr, Accessibility Consultant
  22. Justin L. Yarbrough, Accessibility Specialist, Rio Salado College
  23. Murray Inman, Instructional Design and Accessibility, Rio Salado College
  24. Hidde de Vries, accessibility specialist and front-end developer
  25. James Fleeting, Technical Director, Monkee-Boy
  26. Alex Tait, Accessibility Specialist, AT Fresh Solutions
  27. Michael Fairchild, Accessibility consultant
  28. Gijs Veyfeyken, web accessibility specialist, Five Oaks
  29. Dennis Lembree, Web Axe & Easy Chirp
  30. Adrian Roselli
  31. Rob Whiting, Head of Research & Design, Merlan Ltd.
  32. Kitty Giraudel, Accessibility Specialist, Gorillas
  33. Derek Mohr, Front-end Developer, Mighty in the Midwest
  34. Alastair Campbell, Director of Accessibility, Nomensa
  35. Anders Fredericksen, Level Access
  36. Zoë Bijl, Senior Accessibility Engineer, CrowdStrike
  37. Jonathan Avila, Level Access
  38. Sheri Byrne-Haber, Senior accessibility evangelist
  39. Jared Smith, Associate Director, WebAIM
  40. 木達 一仁 (Kazuhito Kidachi)
  41. Yakim van Zuijlen, Designer
  42. Shannon Urban, Director of Accessibility, EVERFI
  43. Todd Libby, Accessibility Advocate and Consultant
  44. David Monnehay, Atalan
  45. Joschi Kuphal, CPWA & CEO, tollwerk
  46. Romain Deltour, web/accessibility/ebook specialist
  47. Craig Francis, Code Poets Limited
  48. Erik Gustafsson, Accessibility Specialist, Axess Lab
  49. Dan Payne, Accessibility consultant
  50. Ben Tillyer
  51. Belinda Dow, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  52. Matt Obee, Senior Product Designer and accessibility specialist, NearForm
  53. Florian Beijers, Accessibility Consultant, Developer, Screenreader User
  54. Donna Vitan, Design Systems Nerd
  55. Ruben Nic, Web Accessibility/Senior Engineer, Webflow
  56. Dennis Deacon, Accessibility Consultant
  57. Nicolas Loye, CTO, Actency
  58. Rachele DiTullio, accessibility engineer, CPWA
  59. Gerard K. Cohen, self
  60. Dr. Kate Deibel, Inclusion and Accessibility Librarian, Syracuse University Libraries
  61. Vincent Aniort, digital accessibility expert, Orange SA
  62. Arthur Rigaud, Accessibility Specialist and Front-End Developer
  63. Gary Jones, WordPress VIP
  64. Andrew Nevins, CPWA, Front-end developer
  65. Chris Heilmann, Principal Product Manager for Developer Tools
  66. Bruce Lawson, greedy accessibility consultant
  67. Peter Goes, Front-end developer, De Voorhoede
  68. Geoff Mortstock, Accessibility Consultant
  69. Marcus Herrmann, Web Accessibility Specialist and front-end developer
  70. Kelly Childs, Lead Developer, Be Accessible, Inc.
  71. Matthew Hallonbacka
  72. Kelly Wills, Access Technology Specialist, CPWA
  73. Joan Preston, Web Accessibility Coordinator, California State University, Long Beach
  74. Jon Gibbins, digital accessibility consultant, Dotjay Ltd
  75. Alicia Jarvis
  76. Anthony Fernando, CPWA, Accessibility QA Manager, Pearson
  77. Jennifer Strickland, Senior HCD + Accessibility Engineer at MITRE, Accessibility Consultant at Level Access
  78. Lainey Feingold - lawyer and author, Law Office of Lainey Feingold
  79. Andrew Hayward, Accessibility Engineer
  80. Jean Ducrot, Accessibility Engineer, CPWA
  81. Manuel Razzari - Accessibility educator, Buenos Aires National Technological University, Argentina
  82. Zack Kline, Accessibility Tester, ISoftStone
  83. Anna E. Cook - Senior Accessibility Designer
  84. Christophe Strobbe, researcher and lecturer in HCI and accessibility, Stuttgart Media University
  85. Eric Bailey, The A11Y Project Maintainer
  86. Andre Polykanine, software engineer, web accessibility specialist, screen reader user
  87. Ben Myers, Software Engineer
  88. Eric Bednarz, self
  89. Olivier Keul, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  90. Bogdan Cerovac, WAS, front-end developer and accessibility lead
  91. Lori Samuels, Accessibility Director, NBCUniversal
  92. Ryan Leisinger - UX Manager Department of Licensing WA State
  93. Ian Lloyd, Accessibility Engineer
  94. Pavel Pomerantsev, web accessibility engineer, Squarespace
  95. Dominik Wilkowski, People Director, Thinkmill
  96. Rowdy Rabouw, web and app developer, double-R webdevelopment
  97. Jen Smith, Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  98. Toufic Sbeiti, accessibility advocate
  99. Amy Carney, CPWA, accessibility consultant & front-end web developer, Digilou
  100. Carly Gerard CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Western Washington University
  101. Haben Girma, Human Rights Lawyer
  102. Katriel Paige, Accessibility Consultant, Fox Design Studios LLC
  103. Adrianne Mallett, Software Engineer
  104. Krista Greear
  105. Kim Krause Berg, CPACC Accessibility and UX Consultant
  106. Joseph Dolson
  107. Ashley Hannan, Accessibility Advocate
  108. Cara Hall, Accessibility Advocate
  109. Paul Grenier, Web Developer
  110. Glenda Sims, Accessibility consultant
  111. JF Hector Labram, WAS, Principal Front-End Engineer, Kooth Plc
  112. Anne-Mieke Bovelett, Accessibility Advocate
  113. Radimir Bitsov, Web Accessibility and Performance Engineer
  114. Beatriz González Mellídez, Principal Product Design, CPWA, CPUX-RE
  115. Wilfred Nas, Product Owner / User interface consultant
  116. Shawn Thompson, Digital Accessibility Advocate
  117. Kim Johannesen, CEO and Accessibility Consultant, Shift ApS
  118. Marco Hengstenberg, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant
  119. Nicola Saunders, Front-End Developer, Studio 24 Ltd
  120. Rogier Barendregt, Senior digital product designer, Rg/B
  121. Jeremy Keith, Founder, Clearleft
  122. Kasper Isager, Software Developer
  123. Angela P. Ricci, Web Designer/ Front dev
  124. Matt Jiggins, Developer/Designer
  125. Stefan Wajda, LepszyWeb.pl, digital accessibility specialist
  126. Sina Bahram, President, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  127. Kristina England, Accessibility Specialist, University of Massachusetts President's Office
  128. Birkir Gunnarsson, CPWA, digital accessibility lead
  129. Kerstin Probiesch, Accessibility Consultant
  130. Radek Pavlíček, CPWA, Accessibility Specialist, Teiresias Centre Masaryk University & Poslepu.cz
  131. Billy Gregory, TPGi
  132. Thomas Logan
  133. Brian Elton, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  134. Kevin Mar-Molinero, Director of Experience Technologies Kin+Carta Connect, Member of BIMA Inclusive Design Council.
  135. Crystal Preston-Watson, Quality and Accessibility Engineer
  136. Bob Dodd, Accessibility Consultant
  137. Chauncey McAskill
  138. David Swallow, Accessibility Engineer
  139. Marko Milanović, Developer, Tenon.io
  140. Joe Lamyman, Development Specialist
  141. Kevin Ackley, Accessibility Tech Consultant
  142. Stephen Clower, Software Developer and Accessibility Lead, Desmos, Inc.
  143. Nicolas Chardon, Digital Accessibility Expert
  144. Steve Faulkner, Chief Accessibility Officer, TPGi
  145. Andy Bell, Designer and Educator
  146. Patrick H. Lauke, Accessibility Trash Panda
  147. Yann Kozon, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant, Freelance
  148. Chris Taylor, Web Nerd, Yorkshire Twist
  149. Miriam Suzanne, Agency Co-Founder & W3C Invited Expert
  150. Robert Jolly, Product Manager & Accessibility Strategist
  151. Lena Chandelier, Accessibility Expert, Front-end Developer
  152. Thomas Parisot, Old Timey Web Developer
  153. Jesse Menn, Principal Web Developer
  154. Wendy Reid, Accessibility Lead
  155. Scott O'Hara, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  156. Phil Springall
  157. Dr Carl Myhill, Director, User Experience Design Limited
  158. Sumner M. Davenport, Specialist Web Accessibility
  159. Dana Byerly, Interaction Designer
  160. Jamie Knight, self
  161. Matt Richardson, Web Accessibility Expert
  162. Josephine Schwebler, Senior Consultant Accessibility / Accessible Documents
  163. Vegard Haugstvedt, Front-end Developer / Accessibility Specialist, Webstep
  164. Mikołaj Rotnicki, http://a11y.report, accessibility specialist
  165. William Bunch - Accessibility Consultant
  166. Kris Rivenburgh, Chief Accessibility & Legal Officer, Essential Accessibility
  167. Paul Kruczynski, Front-End UX/UI Developer
  168. Matthias Weston, Accessibility-Centered Freelance Developer
  169. Mat Harris, Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  170. Lindsey Dragun, Developer / Accessibility Advocate
  171. Michail Yasonik, Senior Software Engineer
  172. Marcy Sutton, Independent Web Developer and Accessibility Specialist
  173. Talita Pagani, Accessibility and UX Consultant, Research Scientist in Web Accessibility for Neurodiversity
  174. Aaron Chu, UI Engineer + Disability & Design Researcher
  175. Adam Saucier, Web Accessibility Specialist
  176. Arnaud Delafosse, Web Quality & Accessibility Consultant, Temesis
  177. J.J. Meddaugh, Owner, A. T. Guys.
  178. Nicki Rios, CPWA, Founder, Accessibility Consultant & Engineer, Nock & Sparrow
  179. John E Brandt, head dude, jebswebs
  180. Heather Gray, Website Developer
  181. Santina Croniser, Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware
  182. Stein Erik Skotkjerra, Accessibility consultant, CEO, Inklusio
  183. Bruno Pulis, Accessibility Advocate, Creator of Awesome A11y
  184. Brittany Roots, Accessibility Consultant
  185. James Nurthen, Accessibility Engineer & co-chair ARIA Working Group
  186. Shell Little, Inclusive Design Lead and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  187. Carlos Eriksson, Accessibility Lead, Studio 24
  188. Steven Mouret, Digital Accessibility Expert
  189. Adam Page, UX Designer
  190. David A. Kennedy, Designer and Accessibility Weekly curator
  191. Marc Solomon, self
  192. Ron Stauffer, Founder, Lieder Digital
  193. Nick Caskey, CPWA & Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware Inc.
  194. Devon Persing, Technical Program Manager and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  195. Brian Olore, Developer
  196. Kathleen McMahon, Engineer, Designer, and Speaker
  197. Will Slone, Accessibility Engineer
  198. Peter Weil, Web Developer
  199. Brennan Young, Accessibility specialist, Laerdal Medical
  200. Emanuela Gorla, Accessibility Specialist, TetraLogical
  201. Paweł Choiński, Front-End Developer
  202. Eric Hind, Accessibility Specialist
  203. Sylvie Duchateau, Web Accessibility Consultant, Access42
  204. Rachel Cherry, Accessibility Specialist, Director of WPCampus, and Director of Technology and Design, Equal Made
  205. Lucy Greco, Accessaces
  206. John Lukosky, Accessibility Specialist
  207. Jennifer Grant, Senior Accessibility Engineer, Educational Testing Service
  208. Károly Szántai, WAS
  209. Sarah E. Lynch, Accessibility Engineer
  210. L. Jeffrey Zeldman
  211. Paul Shryock, WordPress Engineer, NBA
  212. Nick Colley
  213. Carlin Scuderi, Front End Developer
  214. Nicolas Zerr, Digital Accessibility Expert
  215. Derek Featherstone, Chief Experience Officer, Level Access
  216. Corey Megown, Front-End Developer
  217. Marcelo Sales, Accessibility Specialist, RD (Raia Drogasil)
  218. Scott Vinkle, Accessibility Specialist, Shopify
  219. Barry Pollard, Developer
  220. Anand Chowdhary, Creative Technologist & Entrepreneur
  221. Christian Alden Jacobs, UX Strategist
  222. Edward Pritchard, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  223. Hadley Luker, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  224. John Foliot (JF), Independent Accessibility Specialist / W3C Contributor
  225. Cullan Bonilla, Accessibility Specialist
  226. EJ Mason, Accessibility Specialist
  227. Michele Williams, Accessibility and UX Consultant
  228. Hala Anwar, Inclusive Design Consultant
  229. Johnny Taylor, Accessibility Advocate
  230. Joel McKinnon, Accessibility Specialist
  231. Olivier Nourry, General Manager & CAO, Be Player One
  232. Ross Mullen, Director, CANAXESS
  233. Steve Woodson, Developer
  234. Joe Yang, Senior UX Designer – Accessibility, ServiceNow
  235. Lee Bartholomew, Website Designer
  236. Amanda J. Rush, Self
  237. John H. Carson Jr., retired escalations specialist, Freedom Scientific
  238. Ka Li, Accessibility Consultant
  239. Adele M. Beeby, Web Manager, Leicester City Council
  240. James Scholes, Director of Digital Accessibility, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  241. Ian Kersey, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  242. Aaron Gustafson, Web Standards & Accessibility Advocate
  243. Wally Zielinski, WAS, Dell Technologies
  244. Martin Mengele, Front End Developer & Accessibilty Consultant, @accessabilly)
  245. Gaël Poupard, Lead dev, OnePoint
  246. Philip Kiff, D4K Communications
  247. Tim Kraut, Senior Frontend Developer, AWESOME! Software GmbH
  248. Jennifer Panighetti, Web Developer
  249. Jasmine Kaul, Founder and Digital Content Consultant, Happy Words
  250. Ian Hamilton, accessibility specialist
  251. Margie Chubin, Software Engineer
  252. Joe Lanman, Designer
  253. Jude Robinson, Global Head of Frontend Development, Springer Nature
  254. Luc Poupard, Front-end designer and WordPress developer, Proton Technologies
  255. David Sloan, UX Research Lead, TPGi
  256. Grady Thompson, Student, University of Washington
  257. Claudio Luis Vera, Accessibility leader, analyst, and public speaker
  258. Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo, Fundación Sidar - Acceso Universal
  259. Homer Gaines, UI Engineer, and Accessibility Specialist
  260. Carolina Aguilera, Accessibility Consultant, Chile
  261. Kara Franco, CPWA, Accessibility Engineer
  262. Sarah Higley, Accessibility Specialist & Software Developer, Microsoft
  263. Benoît Dequick, Front-end dev & RGAA expert
  264. Peter Bossley, self
  265. Jennifer Gorfine, UX Engineer & Web Accessibility Specialist
  266. Heather Migliorisi, Web Accessibility Specialist
  267. Thinh-Lay Wonesky, Accessibility Consultant, Allerlay Wonesky Media
  268. Robert Kingett, Blind author
  269. Frances Jurek, Software Engineer
  270. Owen Edwards, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  271. Jennifer Zhang, Senior Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  272. Michael Vaughn, Accessibility Manager
  273. Desiree White
  274. Marco Salsiccia, Accessibility Specialist, Lyft
  275. Carter Temm, Accessibility Consultant
  276. Silvia Ceria, Interior Designer and Content Creator, DforDesign
  277. Maurizio Lepora, Full-Stack Developer, Lemaur
  278. Jared Clayton, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  279. Dirk Ginader, UX Engineer, Google
  280. Cordelia McGee-Tubb, Accessibility Engineer
  281. Ethan Marcotte, web designer, author of "Responsive Web Design"
  282. Jory Cunningham, Accessibility Engineer
  283. Lee White, Front-End & Accessibility Engineer
  284. Richard Boardman, Senior Director, Product Accessibility
  285. David Peter, Software Engineer
  286. Stefan Judis, Web Developer
  287. Dean Birkett, UX Designer & Accessibility Consultant
  288. Myles Lewando, Web Developer & Accessibility Specialist
  289. Michael Dowden, CEO, Andromeda Galactic Solutions, author of "Approachable Accessibility"
  290. Abdullah Norozi Iranzad, Web Developer
  291. Allison Ravenhall, Accessibility Consultant
  292. Ian Pouncey, Director, TetraLogical
  293. Chancey Fleet, Technology Educator
  294. Amanda Mace General Manager, Web Key IT
  295. Wendy Torres, Senior Instructional Technologist
  296. Janos Sitar, Web Accessibility Specialist, Central 1 Credit Union
  297. Dave Bahr, CEO of In-Sightful Living
  298. Momin Pasha Mohammed, CPWA, Accessibility Consultant
  299. Holly Scott-Gardner, usability assessor and disability rights advocate
  300. Sara Cousins, Mighty Spark Design
  301. Roger Fracé, Quality Assurance Specialist
  302. Pierre Albert, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  303. Colleen Gratzer, Creative Boost and Gratzer Graphics LLC
  304. Kara Goldfinch
  305. Sally Thoun, Accessibility Consultant
  306. Ajaz Mohammed, Accessibility Test Consultant, HCL Canada Inc.
  307. Vincent Martin, Usercessible, LLC.
  308. Jessie Lorenz
  309. Amy Mason, Access Technology Specialist, San Francisco Lighthouse for the Blind
  310. Nadia Rasul, CPACC, Front-end Developer and Accessibility Lead
  311. Catherine M. Stager, Accessibility and Assistive Technology Specialist, Front Range Community College
  312. Avi Chandiramani, Program Manager for Accessible Technology Services, San Francisco State University
  313. Wink Harner Professor of Adaptive Technology In Higher Education/CUNY graduate school
  314. Annie Heckel, Lead Accessibility Auditor, Online ADA
  315. Courtney Heitman, Technical Accessibility Specialist
  316. Simon Bonaventure, Accessibility consultant, Empreinte Digitale
  317. Eric Wright
  318. Deborah Kaplan, Accessibility Lead, Suberic Networks
  319. Carie Fisher, Sr. Accessibility consultant, Deque
  320. Scott Boren, Accessibility manager
  321. Josie Davidson, Associate Accessibility Specialist
  322. Matt Campbell, Chief Technology Officer, Pneuma Solutions
  323. Quentin Bellanger, Front-end developer, /tmp
  324. Al Romano, Web Developer, Virtually(Creative)
  325. Derek Riemer, Frontend web application Developer, NVDA screen reader contributor
  326. Isabel Del Castillo, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  327. Nic Chan, Front-End Developer
  328. Jeremy Neander, Senior Front End Engineer
  329. Nick Croft, Senior Full Stack Web Developer, WAS, CPACC, CPWA, 508 TT
  330. Dag Eikesdal, web developer & accessibility specialist
  331. Dylan M. Rafaty, Disability Rights Activist and Head of Accessibility Strategy & Partnerships at C-Hear, Inc.
  332. Randi Strunk, self
  333. Jörg Morsbach, anatom5
  334. Thomas Logan, Founder and CEO, Equal Entry
  335. Lindsay Reddick, self
  336. Mike Calvo, self
  337. Molly E. Holzschlag, Web Educator and Historian
  338. Armony Altinier, CEO & Accessibility Lead, Koena
  339. Olivier Camon, Web developer
  340. Liz Hare, PhD, Quantitative Geneticist, Dog Genetics LLC
  341. Luce Carević, Accessibility expert, Access42
  342. Roman Mkrtchian, Web developer, Koena
  343. Tori Clark, Accessibility Evangelist and Executive Director, Digital A11ies
  344. Sarah Jagrowski, Associate Product Designer, FiscalNote
  345. Jay Miles, Product Designer
  346. Benjamin Michoux, Front-end Engineer
  347. Daman Wandke, CEO/Founder, Wandke Consulting
  348. Laine Amoureux, CPWA, Independent Consultant, Amoureux AT Consulting
  349. Christian Vogler, Professor and Director, Technology Access Program, Gallaudet University
  350. Kevin Erickson, Accessibility Services Manager, Ablr
  351. Sanjay Nasta, CEO, Microassist
  352. Sue Brettell, Branding & UX Designer
  353. Steve Decker, self
  354. Fady Rizk, self
  355. Philip Fortier, Director, Perficient
  356. Natalie Stroud, self
  357. Kalib Watson, Accessibility Engineer II, Jackson
  358. Ryan Dudek, Software Engineer
  359. Jenia Walker, Microsoft
  360. Merrie McGaw, Microsoft
  361. Nir Baligar, Accessibility Engineering Lead, Microsoft
  362. Rob Gallo, Microsoft
  363. Maxime Preaux, Frontend Developer
  364. Mike Schwartz, Component Library Developer/Accessibility SME
  365. Eilana Benish, authorized Accessibility consultant from Israel
  366. Mohammad Suliman, blind master's degree computer science student, Tel Aviv University
  367. Shawn Hooper, Director of IT, Actionable.co
  368. Jim Allan, Accessibility Coordinator
  369. Trevor Attenberg, Access technology specialist, Portland community college
  370. Sandy Feldman, Self
  371. Geof Collis, Accessibility Advocate
  372. Martin Courcelles, Martin Assist Inc.
  373. Cynthia Bennett, Accessibility Researcher, Carnegie Mellon University
  374. Gayle Vivona, UW Writer, consultant, designIMPACT
  375. David Best, Accessibility IT Specialist and Advocate
  376. Alice Packard, Self
  377. Shawn Welker, Access Technology Apprentice, MABVI
  378. Soheil Varamini, CPWA, Accessibility Analyst, Microassist
  379. Marvin Hunkin, self
  380. Alison Walden, Accessibility Specialist, Sapient
  381. Geetha Somasundaram, Accessibility Specialist, Thomson Reuters
  382. Jon Plummer, Director of User Experience, Concentric Sky
  383. Jason Neel, Senior Web Developer, West Virginia University
  384. Angela Hooker, self
  385. Tommy Feldt, CPWA, Accessibility consultant, Useit
  386. Ida Franceen, Developer
  387. Jean-Claude Simpson, Front-end developer, Mangoweb
  388. Holly Schroeder, UX Researcher and Writer, a11y
  389. Roel Van Gils, WAS, Co-founder Eleven Ways
  390. Sara Soueidan, independent Web UI and design systems engineer
  391. Clive Loseby, Owner, Access by Design
  392. Afnizar Nur Ghifari, Product Designer
  393. Laura Bentz, CPACC, User Experience Interaction Designer, a well-known Fortune 500 banking institution
  394. Sarah Pulis, Director Accessibility Services, Intopia
  395. Adem Cifcioglu, Director Accessible Technologies, Intopia
  396. Stewart Hay, Managing Director, Intopia
  397. Chris Pycroft, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  398. Julie Grundy, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  399. Robin Whittleton, Engineering Manager
  400. Justin Wong, Full-Stack Developer, Project COSMIC Limited
  401. Jana Uhrich, Costco Wholesale
  402. Will Buckingham, Senior Front-End Engineer / Lead Accessibility Engineer, Prescriptive Data
  403. Doug Hayman, Accessibility Specialist & Trusted Tester
  404. Jules Ernst, Digital Accessibility Consultant, 200 OK
  405. Cory Joseph, self
  406. Amanda Ryan, Academic Technologist
  407. Sébastien Delorme, CEO, Ideance
  408. Nicolas Hoffmann, Senior Front-End developer / Accessibility advocate
  409. Yvain Liechti, Design System Engineer, UKG
  410. Sébastien Picq, Senior Front-End Engineer / Accessibility consultant
  411. Robin Massart, Policy Assistant on the Web Accessibility Directive, European Commission
  412. Chris M Law, Consultant, Accessibility Track
  413. Asaf Kuller , Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel,
  414. Ray Schwartz, Accessibility Consultant, InRhythm
  415. Guy Hickling, Freelance Accessibility Consultant
  416. Mario Vasquez, UX Designer
  417. Jérémy Renard, webdesigner / front-end developer
  418. Jan Pettersson, UI developer
  419. Jan Maarten, Designer & Accessibility Specialist
  420. Benjamin de Oostfreese, Front-end web developer
  421. Zhiyang Ong, Ph.D. student, Texas A&M University
  422. Caroline Desrosiers, Founder & CEO of Scribely
  423. Anthony LADEUIL, Consultant Accessibilité, Clever Age
  424. Danielle Sheffler, Accessibility Consultant
  425. George McKinlay Accessibility Consultant
  426. Jean-Baptiste Audras, WordPress Core team representative, former WordPress Accessibility team representative, Whodunit Agency head of technology, France
  427. Aaron Jorbin, Product and Engineering Leader
  428. Ethan Holliger, Accessibility Engineer
  429. Mike Vogel, Accessibility Consultant / UX Engineer
  430. Karli Yeoman, Accessibility Engineer, Expedia Group
  431. Carmen Matthews, Accessibility Specialist
  432. Kalani Helekunihi, Disabled Scientist
  433. Mark Boyden, IT Consultant, Web Developer, FOSS Contributor
  434. Andy Marino, Lead Developer, Unity Web Agency
  435. Alisa Herr, CEO, Unity Web Agency
  436. Jacqueline Pugliese, Accessibility Consultant
  437. Maurício Pereiro, Quality Assurance Analyst in Digital Accessibility
  438. Dr. Keith Newton. Technical Program Manager - Accessibility, eBay
  439. Franck Letrouvé, CEO, pixFL
  440. Tema Smith-Bosken, Senior A11y SME and Digital Marketing Senior Advisor Cigna
  441. Attila Bodnár, Web Developer, Accessibility Engineer
  442. Richard Thiel, Frontend Engineer & Accessibility Advocate, real.digital
  443. Stefan Farnetani, Digital Accessibility Specialist & CEO, mindscreen
  444. Lukáš Hosnedl, freelance translator, dev and accessibility consultant
  445. Frank Reding, Development Manager & Accessibility Advocate, Shopify
  446. Michael Telgkamp, Digital Accessibility Specialist & Developer, mindscreen
  447. Ginger Claassen, accessibility engineer / consultant
  448. Duff Johnson CEO, PDF Association
  449. Steve Green Managing Director Test Partners Ltd
  450. Jennifer Grenier, Software Engineer
  451. Okuto Oyama, Front-end Designer & Accessibility Advocate, Internet Watcher
  452. Quin Marilyn, programmer and accessibility advocate.
  453. Peter Quale, Lead Accessibility Consultant, Target Corp.
  454. Carlos Moreno, Software Engineer & Accessibility Advocate, Outsmartly
  455. Peter Heery, Accessibility Scotland
  456. Dirk Neyhart
  457. Lindsay Yazzolino, nonvisual accessibility designer, CVS Health
  458. Marc Haunschild, Accessibility Consultant, Author and Teacher
  459. David Murdoch, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Test Partners Ltd
  460. Tim Frick, President, Mightybytes
  461. Kathy Cahill, Associate Dean, Accessibility and Usability, MIT
  462. Greg McNeil, President/CEO, 216digital
  463. Bobby Graczyk, Accessibility Specialist, 216digital
  464. Joseph S. Levin, Portal Design
  465. Matthieu Marseille, Senior Front End Engineer and RGAA certified accessibility expert, ekino
  466. Asaf Kuller, Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel
  467. Wilmer Rodriguez Vega, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  468. David Dias, Front-End UX/UI Developer & Accessibility Advocate, Kijiji
  469. Kathleen Burkhardt, self
  470. Koen Cornelis, Web Accessibility Specialist, Belgium
  471. Sophie Ragas, Web Accessibility Consultant
  472. Holger Dieterich, Chairman Wheelmap.org, Co-Founder Sozialhelden e.V.
  473. Sebbe Isaac Kurian, UX Designer
  474. Mike Gifford, CivicActions
  475. Jennifer Shepherd, web accessibility specialist
  476. Matthew Shaw, Managing Partner, Disability Solutions
  477. Rodrigo Sanchez, Senior Accessibility Specialist Square Enix West
  478. Amber DeRosa, Accessibility Lead
  479. Paweł Prot, UX and accessibility specialist
  480. Clément Fresneau, accessibility consultant for Empreinte Digitale
  481. Justin Ekis, IT Student, Southwest Tennessee Community College
  482. Joe Ortenzi, Lead Experience Designer, Australian Digital Health Agency
  483. Darren Bates, Global Accessibility and Inclusion Strategist, Darren Bates, LLC
  484. Wilmer Rodriguez Vega, consultant and evaluator for visual accessibility
  485. Claire Webber, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  486. May-Fei Lee, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  487. Jeff Smith, Senior Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  488. Neil Jarvis, Business Development, Intopia
  489. Zoe Haughton, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  490. Andrew Arch, Principal Consultant, Intopia
  491. Sandyara Peres, Accessibility Consultant and Product Owner, everis
  492. Jeff Coburn, Web Services Manager, Institute for Community Inclusion
  493. Nicolas Dorigny, Senior Front End Developper and accessibility enthousiast, Dataetic
  494. Stephane Deschamps, Accessibility specialist and coordinator
  495. Anuradha Kumari, Accessibility Advocate
  496. Juanjo Montiel, independent accessibility consultant
  497. Roberto Scano - ICT Accessibility Expert
  498. Alistair Shepherd, Front End Developer and Accessibility Advocate
  499. Jens Oliver Meiert, engineering manager and author, former WCAG working group member
  500. Nikhil Vytla, Software Engineer & A11y Advocate, AWS
  501. Hector Osborne Rodriguez, Front End Development Manager & Accessiblity Lead, Accenture
  502. Fredrik Fischer, CWAE, Accessibility Consultant and Project Officer at Hilfsgemeinschaft der Blinden und Sehschwachen Österreichs.
  503. Benjy Stanton - Interaction designer
  504. Robert Precious - Lead Accessibility Specialist, THG
  505. Dean Holden, Accessibility Engineer
  506. Donna Lettow, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  507. Ronise Nepomuceno, Accessibility Manager, BT Consumer Digital
  508. Andrew Nordlund, Web Accessibility Specialist
  509. Émilie Viau, accessibility consultant and front-end developer
  510. Julianna Rowsell, Senior Inclusive Designer and Accessibility Advocate, Shared Services Canada
  511. Erin Lucas, Senior Director of Digital Accessibility, RedShelf
  512. Dominic Mazzoni, Software Engineer - Chrome Accessibility, Google
  513. Josh Kim, WAS, Senior Designer and Accessibility Specialist - Ad Hoc
  514. Goly Rabbanim, Authorized accessibilty service consultant & head of digital inclusion at The Open University of Israel
  515. Lauren Race, Accessibility Researcher, New York University; Accessibility Product Designer, Twitter
  516. Matt Northam, Senior Front End Developer and Accessibility Advocate, Pulselive
  517. Jayme Johnson, Accessibility Consultant and Trainer
  518. Daniel O'Mahony, Accessibility Engineer
  519. Ryan Magoon, Principal Front End Engineer, Advance Auto Parts
  520. Shane Popplestone, Accessibility tester.
  521. Tyler Rodick, student of cloud computing, Western Governors University
  522. Deborah Edwards-Oñoro, web designer and accessibility advocate
  523. Patrick Andrade, Assistive Technologist at The Chicago Lighthouse and Accessibility Advocate
  524. Soren Hamby, Senior Manager of UX and Digital Design at Benjamin Moore
  525. Nathan Weber, Thomson Reuters, UX manager
  526. Char James-Tanny, Accessibility Advocate
  527. Werner Rosenberger, MSc, CWAE, Certified WebAccessibility Expert, Projektleitung WACA - Web Accessibility Certificate Austria
  528. Riley MacIsaac, Quadriam, Design and Development Lead and Accessibility Specialist
  529. Marco Zehe, formerly of Freedom Scientific, Mozilla, NVDA and open web contributor, accessibility veteran
  530. Benoit Kogut, senior frontend dev
  531. Rupa Devi, Staff Product Design, Accessibility Specialist at Freshworks Tech
  532. Ugurcan (Ugi) Kutluoglu, Accessibility Lead, Carbon Health
  533. Romain Menke, Developer, Mr. Henry
  534. Michael Fienen, Senior Web Developer, founder of The Drunken UX Podcast
  535. Ady Stokes, A11y_Ady
  536. Michael Zapata, Accessibility Coordinator
  537. Mark McCarthy, MSIM, CPWA, Sr. Accessibility Engineer, University of Illinois
  538. Gareth Crossan, Digital Accessibility Engineer, Ireland
  539. Chris Smart, CPACC
  540. Charles Roper, Digital Development Manager
  541. Eeva-Jonna Panula, CPWA, Front End Developer, Accessibility Specialist
  542. Blake Reid, Clinical Professor, Colorado Law
  543. Bet Hannon, CEO BH Business Websites
  544. Meg Miller, Lead Developer & Accessibility Specialist for Bet Hannon Business Websites
  545. Michael Honey-Arcement, DevOps Engineer, Channel-Fusion
  546. Tobias Christian Jensen, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  547. Jeffrey H.S. Knaack, Digital Product Manager & Solutions Architect, NYS Digital Services
  548. Samm Delorey, Web Accessibility Specialist, University of Massachusetts Amherst
  549. Chris Yoong, Frontend Developer, Government Digital Service
  550. Lizzie Bruce, Content strategist specialising in readability, Cake Consultancy Ltd.
  551. Wojtek Kutyla, Independent User Experience Consultant and Trainer, Kutyla Design Ltd.
  552. Andy Andrews, University of Washington
  553. Andreas Jacobsen, CPWA, CEO, Inklud AS
  554. Kristian Munter Simonsen, CPWA, accessibility consultant, Inklud AS
  555. Jan McSorley, VP of Accessibility, Pearson Assessments
  556. Caryn Pagel, Sr. Digital Accessibility Specialist, Thomson Reuters
  557. Rain Breaw Michaels, CPWA, Interaction Designer - Central Accessibility, Google
  558. Saptak Sengupta, Inclusive Web Developer
  559. Kazuhiko Tsuchiya, web usability and accessibility expert
  560. Sacha Bouillez, Frontend Developer and Accessibility Advocate
  561. Jacquelyn Parmentier "average blind screen reader user"
  562. Markku Hakkinen, Director of Accessibility Standards & Inclusive Technology, ETS
  563. HenryGR, Developer and Accessibility Advocate
  564. Elle Waters, Adobe
  565. Breixo Pastoriza, CPACC, Glocal Quality Solutions.
  566. Christopher Johansen, Anttix, Inc.
  567. Keri Svendsen
  568. John McNabb, Accessibility Consultant
  569. Joe Chidzik, Accessibility Consultant.
  570. Omar Bonilla, Accessibility Specialist
  571. Chelsea Adelman, Product Designer
  572. Ramon Lapenta, Tech Lead, Cyber-Duck Ltd
  573. Alissa Bodden, Accessibility Advocate, UI/UX Designer
  574. Ala Hamada, Accessibility Analyst
  575. Thibaud Colas, Developer, Torchbox
  576. Angie Rajani, CPACC, Accessibility Specialist
  577. Maurício Carneiro, Accessibility Specialist and Frontend Developer
  578. Scott McKee, UX Designer
  579. Sergei Kriger, Frontend Developer
  580. Dr Donal Fitzpatrick, Assistant Professor, Dublin City University
  581. Kelly Dip, Accessibility Specialist and Instructional Designer
  582. Rocío Alvarado, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  583. Manuel Cheța, Frontend Developer and Web Accessibility Specialist
  584. Detlef Girke, BITV-Consult, Accessibility Specialist
  585. Kelly Dip, Accessibility Specialist and Instructional Designer
  586. National Network for Equitable Library Service (NNELS)
  587. Dawn E. Collett, DevSecOps Engineer and accidental accessibility advocate
  588. Elie Sloïm, CEO and founder at Opquast
  589. Grant Broome, Director, Dig Inclusion
  590. Kathy E. Gill, UX consultant and professor
  591. Lee Amador, CPWA, WAS, CPACC Accessibility Consultant
  592. Jack McElaney, VP, Microassist

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