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Overlay Fact Sheet

What is a web accessibility overlay?

Overlays are a broad term for technologies aim to improve the accessibility of a website. They apply third-party source code (typically JavaScript) to make improvements to the front-end code of the website.

Website add-on products claiming to improve accessibility go back to the late 1990s with products like Readspeaker and Browsealoud. They added text-to-speech capabilities to the website(s) on which they were installed.

Then similar products came to market that added more tools to their software. These allow user-based control of things like font-sizes and colors to improve readability.

Some newer overlay products aim to fix any problems in the site's code that are preventing assistive technology from being used easily. They apply a script to the page which scans the code and automatically attempts to repair the problem.

Products like Userway, EqualWeb, AudioEye, User1st, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, Purple Lens, and accessiBe are known as accessibility overlays. They are sometimes white labelled (sold under other names), so this is not a complete list of the type of products discussed on this page.

Strengths and weaknesses of overlay “widgets”

Overlay widgets are unnecessary and are poorly placed in the technology stack.

As stated above, some overlay products contain widgets which present a series of controls that modify the presentation of the page they're on. Depending on the product, those changes may do things like change the page contrast, enlarge the size of the page's text, or perform other changes to the page that are intended to improve the experience for users with disabilities.

To laypersons, these features may seem beneficial, but their practical value is largely overstated because the end users that these features claim to serve will already have the necessary features on their computer, either as a built-in feature or as an additional piece of software that the user needs to access not only the Web but all software.

On this latter point, it is a mistake to believe that the features provided by the overlay widget will be of much use by end users because if those features were necessary to use the website, they'd be needed for all websites that the user interacts with. Instead, the widget is  as—at best—redundant functionality with what the user already has.

Strengths and weaknesses of automated repair

While some automated repair is possible, customers should be discouraged from using an overlay as a long-term solution.

Some overlay products have capabilities aimed at providing accessibility repairs to the underlying page on which the overlay is added. These repairs are applied when the page loads in the user's browser.

While it is true that a non-trivial array of accessibility problems can be repaired in this manner, the nature, extent, and accuracy of such repair are limited by a number of important factors:

In addition to the above, overlays do not repair content in Flash, Java, Silverlight, PDF, HTML5 Canvas, SVG, or media files.

An additional class of product exists, which only perform automated repairs and are marketed as a temporary solution. These include Amaze by Deque Systems, Alchemy by Level Access, and Sentinel by Tenon.

For purposes of this document, these products aren't considered to be in the same class of product as the overlays that provide widgets. The most notable difference, beyond the lack of a “widget” is that Amaze, Alchemy, and Sentinel are understood by their manufacturers as being intended for use as an interim solution.

Fitness for achieving compliance with accessibility standards

While the use of an overlay may improve compliance with a handful of provisions in major accessibility standards, full compliance cannot be achieved with an overlay.

Among the many claims made by overlay vendors is the claim that the use of their product will being the site into compliance with accessibility standards such as WCAG 2.x, related and derivative standards, and laws that mandate compliance with those standards.

Conformance to a standard means that you meet or satisfy the ‘requirements’ of the standard. In WCAG 2.0 the ‘requirements’ are the Success Criteria. To conform to WCAG 2.0, you need to satisfy the Success Criteria, that is, there is no content which violates the Success Criteria. Understanding WCAG 2.1: Understanding Conformance

Given that conformance is defined as meeting all requirements of the standard, these products' documented inability to repair all possible issues means that they cannot bring a website into compliance. Products marketed with such claims should be viewed with significant scepticism.

Privacy of personal data

Overlays that automatically enable certain settings, like those for screen reader or speech recognition users, do so by detecting when an assistive technology is running on the device. This exposes the fact that the person using the device at the time has a disability. In certain cases, like screen reader users where the majority are blind or have low vision, it exposes even more detail about the nature of their disability. Like age, ethnic background, or preferred gender, disability is sensitive personal information. It is not data that should be collected without the informed consent of the person it belongs to.

Some overlays have been found to persist users' settings across sites which use the same overlay. This is done by setting a cookie on the user's computer. When the user enables a setting for an overlay feature on one site, the overlay will automatically turn on that feature on other sites. While the overlay company might think they're doing good by the end user, the big privacy problem is that the user never opted in to be tracked and there's also no ability to opt-out. Due to this lack of an opt-out (other than explicitly turning off that setting) this creates GDPR and CCPA risk for the overlay customer.

In their own words

Many users with disabilities have expressed strong words of dissatisfaction with overlay products. As shown below, overlays themselves may have accessibility problems significant enough for users to take steps to actively block overlays from appearing at all.

Please note: while this section may mention specific vendors, these comments are par-for-the-course when it comes to the user experience provided by overlay widgets which have, in themselves, a pattern of negatively impacting the user experience.

...assuming your tool can do a good job making something accessible, it can do an even better job making something accessible running directly on the user's machine having access to machine code and machine APIs DerekRiemer
...I finally managed to gain access to my @NameCheap account by blocking #AccessiBe in my Windows Hosts file. I should not need to do this to use the Internet. AccessiBe needs to AccessiBeGone WilfSplodNokit
...I know with 100% certainty, any site which has deployed an overlay in the past year and a half has been less useable for both my wife and me—both blind. GeauxEnder
...Still a pain to even try reading the article on a mobile device because of the constant interruption every few seconds. Considering every site using your service also has this problem… Nope. Big_D01
...Making a webpage accessible does take work, and simply telling a business they can install your plugin is absolutely foolish, you build, and design accessibility in to a webpage using WCAG standards. w9fyi
...Suggesting one line of code is cheap so you should do it by inference suggests disabled lives aren't worth investing in either. #a11y Kevmarmol_CT
@AccessiBe Just to demonstrate my good faith, here's a quick free audit of https://t.co/1mQGCCtnIs. You capture "tab" which is the standard way to navigate. There's no way to not enable your overlay if I want to navigate the page. Once the overlay is enabled, wild things happen. eluberoff
#AccessiBe makes sites harder to use by getting in the way of browsing and changing access barriers on a page, not fixing them. A student and I came across an "enhanced" website and to my shame, we left because navigating that mess was beyond my skills, on that day. turtlecatpurrz
Accessibility overlays are not the answer, and AccessiBe is no exception. As a screen reader user, numerous sites have become less usable for me with this overlay. Discrediting reputable accessiblity professionals and advocates will not sway me on this view. https://t.co/ZgFt8JtsbZ SingingTigress
An die Screen Reader nutzenden Follower: Vielleicht habt ihr schon von #Accessibe gehört, einem Overlay, das behauptet, Seiten, in denen es eingebunden ist, zugänglicher zu machen. Ich möchte nicht näher ins Detail gehen. Kurz gesagt: Kompletter Blödsinn. Finger weg! MarcoZehe
Automated solutions which promise to make your site accessible can't. It takes more than automation to achieve this requirement. You won't be safe from liability. you will almost assuredly negatively impact your customers with disabilities. twithoff
Every time I go on a website and I hear the #accessiBe notification that this site is adjusted to my screen reader, I know that my blocker isn't working properly, and I'm in for a hellish experience on that particular website. https://t.co/ZFzKMfUe0t BorrisInABox
I tried using this @AccessiBe site with VoiceOver in Chrome on iOS. The 4-star rating is announced as "unpronounceable" 🤦‍♀️ https://t.co/f4MxQ2eLLP" racheleditullio
I wrote an email to their customer service detailing that I can not use their site due to the overlay, but… I really am disappointed, but I hope they listen. @Goodfair_ - please stop using AccessiBe. kit_flowerstorm
I'm not an accessibility expert, just a screen reader user with decent skills telling you that this thread is spot on and my experience with #AccessiBe is that it makes sites with accessibility issues even harder to work around. https://t.co/cfyrEqXwTy atfarnum
...If you are blind or low vision and rely on assistive technologies like screen readers, you may have begun finding popular websites becoming less usable… this page describes how to ban AccessiBe from ever reaching your computer… https://t.co/qbiKvolizS smartudlab
OK, this seems very wrong to me. A local chain here named Fleet Farm is now using AccessiBe. It makes a mess of the search for location feature. This is what I now get on the start of the result page. kellylford
Thank goodness Firefox blocks their accessibility detection. For me, focus jumps all over the place with #AccessiBe enabled. When it's disabled, it behaves itself. mhorspool
There are 0 automated tools that can tetect accessibility problems accurately at anything above 30% of the time. 0. This is commonly known by anyone who's been in this space for at least a week. #AccessiBe cswordpress
There's a perfectly practical tool for making websites accessible. It's called a programmer. The needs that matter in making a website accessible are those of the users. If you can't meet those, then you can't meet the basic costs of doing business. WTBDavidG
When #AccessiBe is enabled, the page is flooded with headings. Lots of heading level 2's. The title of each phone remains a heading in both versions of the page, but with it enabled, things like cost, display, and all the other components of the tables become headings as well. CatchTheseWords

Conclusion

No overlay product on the market can cause a website to become fully compliant with any existing accessibility standard and therefore cannot eliminate legal risk.

Accessibility on the Web is a big challenge, both for owners of websites and for the users of those websites. The invention of novel approaches to resolving this challenge is to be commended.

However, in the case of overlays—especially those which attempt to add widgets that present assistive features—the challenge is not being met. Even more problematic are the deceptive marketing provided by some overlay vendors who promise that implementing their product will give their customer's sites immediate compliance with laws and standards.

The ineffectiveness of overlays is something that has broad agreement among accessibility practitioners, per the WebAIM Survey of Web Accessibility Practitioners which found:

A strong majority (67%) of respondents rate these tools as not at all or not very effective. Respondents with disabilities were even less favorable with 72% rating them not at all or not very effective, and only 2.4% rating them as very effective.

Statement from sponsors and signatories to this fact sheet

As a result of the above information:

  1. We will never advocate, recommend, or integrate an overlay which deceptively markets itself as providing automated compliance with laws or standards.
  2. We will always advocate for the remediation of accessibility issues at the source of the original error.
  3. We will refuse to stay silent when overlay vendors use deception to market their products.
  4. More specifically, we hereby advocate for the removal of accessiBe, AudioEye, UserWay, User1st, MK-Sense, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, and all similar products and encourage the site owners who've implemented these products to use more robust, independent, and permanent strategies to making their sites more accessible.

Signed by:

  1. Karl Groves, Founder and President, Tenon.io
  2. Matt King, Chair, W3C ARIA Authoring Practices Task Force and W3C ARIA and Assistive Technologies Community Group
  3. Bill Dengler, totally blind computer science student and code contributor to the NVDA screen reader, Swarthmore College, Philadelphia
  4. Nicolas Steenhout, Independent accessibility consultant
  5. Rian Rietveld, web accessibility specialist, Level Level
  6. Weston Thayer, Founder, Assistiv Labs
  7. Denis Boudreau, Accessibility consultant
  8. Meryl K. Evans, accessibility advocate
  9. Makoto Ueki, Web accessibility consultant, Infoaxia
  10. Michael Spellacy, Accessibility Consultant
  11. Helen Burge, Accessibility Consultant
  12. Léonie Watson, Director, TetraLogical
  13. Eric Eggert, Co-Founder, outline
  14. Dale Reardon - Founder & CEO of TravelForAll.Guide
  15. Jason Gill - Certified Web Accessibility Specialist
  16. Michael Ausbun, CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  17. Ronny Hendriks - Accessibility Consultant, Toegankelijk Online
  18. Charles Hall, Invited Expert W3C AGWG
  19. Hai Nguyen Ly, Accessibility Advocate
  20. David Luhr, Accessibility Consultant
  21. Justin L. Yarbrough, Accessibility Specialist, Rio Salado College
  22. Hidde de Vries, accessibility specialist and front-end developer
  23. James Fleeting, Technical Director, Monkee-Boy
  24. Alex Tait, Accessibility Specialist, AT Fresh Solutions
  25. Michael Fairchild, Accessibility consultant
  26. Gijs Veyfeyken, web accessibility specialist, Five Oaks
  27. Dennis Lembree, Web Axe & Easy Chirp
  28. Adrian Roselli
  29. Rob Whiting, Head of Research & Design, Merlan Ltd.
  30. Kitty Giraudel, Accessibility Specialist, Gorillas
  31. Derek Mohr, Front-end Developer, Mighty in the Midwest
  32. Alastair Campbell, Director of Accessibility, Nomensa
  33. Anders Fredericksen, Level Access
  34. Zoë Bijl, Senior Accessibility Engineer, CrowdStrike
  35. Jonathan Avila, Level Access
  36. Sheri Byrne-Haber, Senior accessibility evangelist
  37. Jared Smith, Associate Director, WebAIM
  38. Kazuhito Kidachi
  39. Yakim van Zuijlen, Designer
  40. Shannon Urban, Director of Accessibility, EVERFI
  41. Todd Libby, Accessibility Advocate and Consultant
  42. David Monnehay, Atalan
  43. Joschi Kuphal, CPWA & CEO, tollwerk
  44. Romain Deltour, web/accessibility/ebook specialist
  45. Craig Francis, Code Poets Limited
  46. Erik Gustafsson, Accessibility Specialist, Axess Lab
  47. Dan Payne, Accessibility consultant
  48. Ben Tillyer
  49. Matt Obee, Senior Product Designer and accessibility specialist, NearForm
  50. Florian Beijers, Accessibility Consultant, Developer, Screenreader User
  51. Donna Vitan, Design Systems Nerd
  52. Ruben Nic, Web Accessibility/Senior Engineer, Webflow
  53. Dennis Deacon, Accessibility Consultant
  54. Nicolas Loye, CTO, Actency
  55. Rachele DiTullio, accessibility engineer, CPWA
  56. Gerard K. Cohen, self
  57. Dr. Kate Deibel, Inclusion and Accessibility Librarian, Syracuse University Libraries
  58. Vincent Aniort, digital accessibility expert, Orange SA
  59. Arthur Rigaud, Accessibility Specialist and Front-End Developer
  60. Gary Jones, WordPress VIP
  61. Andrew Nevins, CPWA, Front-end developer
  62. Chris Heilmann, Principal Product Manager for Developer Tools
  63. Bruce Lawson, greedy accessibility consultant
  64. Peter Goes, Front-end developer, De Voorhoede
  65. Geoff Mortstock, Accessibility Consultant
  66. Marcus Herrmann, Web Accessibility Specialist and front-end developer
  67. Kelly Childs, Lead Developer, Be Accessible, Inc.
  68. Matthew Hallonbacka
  69. Kelly Wills, Access Technology Specialist, CPWA
  70. Joan Preston, Web Accessibility Coordinator, California State University, Long Beach
  71. Jon Gibbins, digital accessibility consultant, Dotjay Ltd
  72. Alicia Jarvis
  73. Anthony Fernando, CPWA, Accessibility QA Manager, Pearson
  74. Jennifer Strickland, Senior HCD + Accessibility Engineer at MITRE, Accessibility Consultant at Level Access
  75. Lainey Feingold - lawyer and author, Law Office of Lainey Feingold
  76. Andrew Hayward, Accessibility Engineer
  77. Jean Ducrot, Accessibility Engineer, CPWA
  78. Manuel Razzari - Accessibility educator, Buenos Aires National Technological University, Argentina
  79. Zack Kline, Accessibility Tester, ISoftStone
  80. Anna E. Cook - Senior Product Designer and Accessibility Specialist
  81. Christophe Strobbe, researcher and lecturer in HCI and accessibility, Stuttgart Media University
  82. Eric Bailey, The A11Y Project Maintainer
  83. Andre Polykanine, software engineer, web accessibility specialist, screen reader user
  84. Ben Myers, Software Engineer
  85. Eric Bednarz, self
  86. Olivier Keul, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  87. Bogdan Cerovac, WAS, front-end developer and accessibility lead
  88. Lori Samuels, Accessibility Director, NBCUniversal
  89. Ryan Leisinger - UX Manager Department of Licensing WA State
  90. Ian Lloyd, Accessibility Engineer
  91. Pavel Pomerantsev, web accessibility engineer, Squarespace
  92. Dominik Wilkowski, People Director, Thinkmill
  93. Rowdy Rabouw, web and app developer, double-R webdevelopment
  94. Jen Smith, Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  95. Toufic Sbeiti, accessibility advocate
  96. Amy Carney, CPWA, accessibility consultant & front-end web developer, Digilou
  97. Carly Gerard CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Western Washington University
  98. Haben Girma, Human Rights Lawyer
  99. Katriel Paige, Accessibility Consultant, Fox Design Studios LLC
  100. Adrianne Mallett, Software Engineer
  101. Krista Greear
  102. Kim Krause Berg, CPACC Accessibility and UX Consultant
  103. Joseph Dolson
  104. Ashley Hannan, Accessibility Advocate
  105. Cara Hall, Accessibility Advocate
  106. Paul Grenier, Web Developer
  107. Glenda Sims, Accessibility consultant
  108. JF Hector Labram, WAS, Principal Front-End Engineer, Kooth Plc
  109. Anne-Mieke Bovelett, Accessibility Advocate
  110. Radimir Bitsov, Web Accessibility and Performance Engineer
  111. Beatriz González Mellídez, Principal Product Design, CPWA, CPUX-RE
  112. Wilfred Nas, Product Owner / User interface consultant
  113. Shawn Thompson, Digital Accessibility Advocate
  114. Kim Johannesen, CEO and Accessibility Consultant, Shift ApS
  115. Marco Hengstenberg, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant
  116. Nicola Saunders, Front-End Developer, Studio 24 Ltd
  117. Rogier Barendregt, Senior digital product designer, Rg/B
  118. Jeremy Keith, Founder, Clearleft
  119. Kasper Isager, Software Developer
  120. Angela P. Ricci, Web Designer/ Front dev
  121. Matt Jiggins, Developer/Designer
  122. Stefan Wajda, LepszyWeb.pl, digital accessibility specialist
  123. Sina Bahram, President, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  124. Kristina England, Accessibility Specialist, University of Massachusetts President's Office
  125. Birkir Gunnarsson, CPWA, digital accessibility lead
  126. Kerstin Probiesch, Accessibility Consultant
  127. Radek Pavlíček, CPWA, Accessibility Specialist, Teiresias Centre Masaryk University & Poslepu.cz
  128. Billy Gregory, TPGi
  129. Thomas Logan
  130. Brian Elton, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  131. Kevin Mar-Molinero, Director of Experience Technologies Kin+Carta Connect, Member of BIMA Inclusive Design Council.
  132. Crystal Preston-Watson, Quality and Accessibility Engineer
  133. Bob Dodd, Accessibility Consultant
  134. Chauncey McAskill
  135. David Swallow, Accessibility Engineer
  136. Marko Milanović, Developer, Tenon.io
  137. Joe Lamyman, Development Specialist
  138. Kevin Ackley, Accessibility Tech Consultant
  139. Stephen Clower, Software Developer and Accessibility Lead, Desmos, Inc.
  140. Nicolas Chardon, Digital Accessibility Expert
  141. Steve Faulkner, Chief Accessibility Officer, TPGi
  142. Andy Bell, Designer and Educator
  143. Patrick H. Lauke, Accessibility Trash Panda
  144. Yann Kozon, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant, Freelance
  145. Chris Taylor, Web Nerd, Yorkshire Twist
  146. Miriam Suzanne, Agency Co-Founder & W3C Invited Expert
  147. Robert Jolly, Product Manager & Accessibility Strategist
  148. Lena Chandelier, Accessibility Expert, Front-end Developer
  149. Thomas Parisot, Old Timey Web Developer
  150. Jesse Menn, Principal Web Developer
  151. Wendy Reid, Accessibility Lead
  152. Scott O'Hara, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  153. Phil Springall
  154. Dr Carl Myhill, Director, User Experience Design Limited
  155. Sumner M. Davenport, Specialist Web Accessibility
  156. Dana Byerly, Interaction Designer
  157. Jamie Knight, self
  158. Matt Richardson, Web Accessibility Expert
  159. Josephine Schwebler, Senior Consultant Accessibility / Accessible Documents
  160. Vegard Haugstvedt, Front-end Developer / Accessibility Specialist, Webstep
  161. Mikołaj Rotnicki, http://a11y.report, accessibility specialist
  162. William Bunch - Accessibility Consultant
  163. Kris Rivenburgh, Chief Accessibility & Legal Officer, Essential Accessibility
  164. Paul Kruczynski, Front-End UX/UI Developer
  165. Matthias Weston, Accessibility-Centered Freelance Developer
  166. Mat Harris, Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  167. Lindsey Dragun, Developer / Accessibility Advocate
  168. Michail Yasonik, Senior Software Engineer
  169. Marcy Sutton, Independent Web Developer and Accessibility Specialist
  170. Talita Pagani, Accessibility and UX Consultant, Research Scientist in Web Accessibility for Neurodiversity
  171. Aaron Chu, UI Engineer + Disability & Design Researcher
  172. Adam Saucier, Web Accessibility Specialist
  173. Arnaud Delafosse, Web Quality & Accessibility Consultant, Temesis
  174. J.J. Meddaugh, Owner, A. T. Guys.
  175. Nicki Rios, CPWA, Founder, Accessibility Consultant & Engineer, Nock & Sparrow
  176. John E Brandt, head dude, jebswebs
  177. Heather Gray, Website Developer
  178. Santina Croniser, Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware
  179. Stein Erik Skotkjerra, Accessibility consultant, CEO, Inklusio
  180. Bruno Pulis, Accessibility Advocate, Creator of Awesome A11y
  181. Brittany Roots, Accessibility Consultant
  182. James Nurthen, Accessibility Engineer & co-chair ARIA Working Group
  183. Shell Little, Inclusive Design Lead and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  184. Carlos Eriksson, Accessibility Lead, Studio 24
  185. Steven Mouret, Digital Accessibility Expert
  186. Adam Page, UX Designer
  187. David A. Kennedy, Designer and Accessibility Weekly curator
  188. Marc Solomon, self
  189. Ron Stauffer, Founder, Lieder Digital
  190. Nick Caskey, CPWA & Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware Inc.
  191. Devon Persing, Technical Program Manager and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  192. Brian Olore, Developer
  193. Kathleen McMahon, Engineer, Designer, and Speaker
  194. Will Slone, Accessibility Engineer
  195. Peter Weil, Web Developer
  196. Brennan Young, Accessibility specialist, Laerdal Medical
  197. Emanuela Gorla, Accessibility Specialist, TetraLogical
  198. Paweł Choiński, Front-End Developer
  199. Eric Hind, Accessibility Specialist
  200. Sylvie Duchateau, Web Accessibility Consultant, Access42
  201. Rachel Cherry, Accessibility Specialist, Director of WPCampus, and Director of Technology and Design, Equal Made
  202. Lucy Greco, Accessaces
  203. John Lukosky, Accessibility Specialist
  204. Jennifer Grant, Senior Accessibility Engineer, Educational Testing Service
  205. Károly Szántai, WAS
  206. Sarah E. Lynch, Accessibility Engineer
  207. L. Jeffrey Zeldman
  208. Paul Shryock, WordPress Engineer, NBA
  209. Nick Colley
  210. Carlin Scuderi, Front End Developer
  211. Nicolas Zerr, Digital Accessibility Expert
  212. Derek Featherstone, Chief Experience Officer, Level Access
  213. Corey Megown, Front-End Developer
  214. Marcelo Sales, Accessibility Specialist, RD (Raia Drogasil)
  215. Scott Vinkle, Accessibility Specialist, Shopify
  216. Barry Pollard, Developer
  217. Anand Chowdhary, Creative Technologist & Entrepreneur
  218. Christian Alden Jacobs, UX Strategist
  219. Edward Pritchard, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  220. Hadley Luker, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  221. John Foliot (JF), Independent Accessibility Specialist / W3C Contributor
  222. Cullan Bonilla, Accessibility Specialist
  223. EJ Mason, Accessibility Specialist
  224. Michele Williams, Accessibility and UX Consultant
  225. Hala Anwar, Inclusive Design Consultant
  226. Johnny Taylor, Accessibility Advocate
  227. Joel McKinnon, Accessibility Specialist
  228. Olivier Nourry, General Manager & CAO, Be Player One
  229. Ross Mullen, Director, CANAXESS
  230. Steve Woodson, Developer
  231. Joe Yang, Senior UX Designer – Accessibility, ServiceNow
  232. Lee Bartholomew, Website Designer
  233. Amanda J. Rush, Self
  234. John H. Carson Jr., retired escalations specialist, Freedom Scientific
  235. Ka Li, Accessibility Consultant
  236. Adele M. Beeby, Web Manager, Leicester City Council
  237. James Scholes, Director of Digital Accessibility, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  238. Ian Kersey, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  239. Aaron Gustafson, Web Standards & Accessibility Advocate
  240. Wally Zielinski, WAS, Dell Technologies
  241. Martin Mengele, Front End Developer & Accessibilty Consultant, @accessabilly)
  242. Gaël Poupard, Lead dev, OnePoint
  243. Philip Kiff, D4K Communications
  244. Tim Kraut, Senior Frontend Developer, AWESOME! Software GmbH
  245. Jennifer Panighetti, Web Developer
  246. Jasmine Kaul, Founder and Digital Content Consultant, Happy Words
  247. Ian Hamilton, accessibility specialist
  248. Margie Chubin, Software Engineer
  249. Joe Lanman, Designer
  250. Jude Robinson, Global Head of Frontend Development, Springer Nature
  251. Luc Poupard, Front-end designer and WordPress developer, Proton Technologies
  252. David Sloan, UX Research Lead, TPGi
  253. Grady Thompson, Student, University of Washington
  254. Claudio Luis Vera, Accessibility leader, analyst, and public speaker
  255. Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo, Fundación Sidar - Acceso Universal
  256. Homer Gaines, UI Engineer, and Accessibility Specialist
  257. Carolina Aguilera, Accessibility Consultant, Chile
  258. Kara Franco, CPWA, Accessibility Engineer
  259. Sarah Higley, Accessibility Specialist & Software Developer, Microsoft
  260. Benoît Dequick, Front-end dev & RGAA expert
  261. Peter Bossley, self
  262. Jennifer Gorfine, UX Engineer & Web Accessibility Specialist
  263. Heather Migliorisi, Web Accessibility Specialist
  264. Thinh-Lay Wonesky, Accessibility Consultant, Allerlay Wonesky Media
  265. Robert Kingett, Blind author
  266. Frances Jurek, Software Engineer
  267. Owen Edwards, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  268. Jennifer Zhang, Senior Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  269. Michael Vaughn, Accessibility Manager
  270. Desiree White
  271. Marco Salsiccia, Accessibility Specialist, Lyft
  272. Carter Temm, Accessibility Consultant
  273. Silvia Ceria, Interior Designer and Content Creator, DforDesign
  274. Maurizio Lepora, Full-Stack Developer, Lemaur
  275. Jared Clayton, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  276. Dirk Ginader, UX Engineer, Google
  277. Cordelia McGee-Tubb, Accessibility Engineer
  278. Ethan Marcotte, web designer, author of "Responsive Web Design"
  279. Jory Cunningham, Accessibility Engineer
  280. Lee White, Front-End & Accessibility Engineer
  281. Richard Boardman, Senior Director, Product Accessibility
  282. David Peter, Software Engineer
  283. Stefan Judis, Web Developer
  284. Dean Birkett, UX Designer & Accessibility Consultant
  285. Myles Lewando, Web Developer & Accessibility Specialist
  286. Michael Dowden, CEO, Andromeda Galactic Solutions, author of "Approachable Accessibility"
  287. Abdullah Norozi Iranzad, Web Developer
  288. Allison Ravenhall, Accessibility Consultant
  289. Ian Pouncey, Director, TetraLogical
  290. Chancey Fleet, Technology Educator
  291. Amanda Mace General Manager, Web Key IT
  292. Wendy Torres, Senior Instructional Technologist
  293. Janos Sitar, Web Accessibility Specialist, Central 1 Credit Union
  294. Dave Bahr, CEO of In-Sightful Living
  295. Momin Pasha Mohammed, CPWA, Accessibility Consultant
  296. Holly Scott-Gardner, usability assessor and disability rights advocate
  297. Sara Cousins, Mighty Spark Design
  298. Roger Fracé, Quality Assurance Specialist
  299. Pierre Albert, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  300. Colleen Gratzer, Creative Boost and Gratzer Graphics LLC
  301. Kara Goldfinch
  302. Sally Thoun, Accessibility Consultant
  303. Ajaz Mohammed, Accessibility Test Consultant, HCL Canada Inc.
  304. Vincent Martin, Usercessible, LLC.
  305. Jessie Lorenz
  306. Amy Mason, Access Technology Specialist, San Francisco Lighthouse for the Blind
  307. Nadia Rasul, CPACC, Front-end Developer and Accessibility Lead
  308. Catherine M. Stager, Accessibility and Assistive Technology Specialist, Front Range Community College
  309. Avi Chandiramani, Program Manager for Accessible Technology Services, San Francisco State University
  310. Wink Harner Professor of Adaptive Technology In Higher Education/CUNY graduate school
  311. Annie Heckel, Lead Accessibility Auditor, Online ADA
  312. Courtney Heitman, Technical Accessibility Specialist
  313. Simon Bonaventure, Accessibility consultant, Empreinte Digitale
  314. Eric Wright
  315. Deborah Kaplan, Accessibility Lead, Suberic Networks
  316. Carie Fisher, Sr. Accessibility consultant, Deque
  317. Scott Boren, Accessibility manager
  318. Josie Davidson, Associate Accessibility Specialist
  319. Matt Campbell, Chief Technology Officer, Pneuma Solutions
  320. Quentin Bellanger, Front-end developer, /tmp
  321. Al Romano, Web Developer, Virtually(Creative)
  322. Derek Riemer, Frontend web application Developer, NVDA screen reader contributor
  323. Isabel Del Castillo, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  324. Nic Chan, Front-End Developer
  325. Jeremy Neander, Senior Front End Engineer
  326. Nick Croft, Senior Full Stack Web Developer, WAS, CPACC, CPWA, 508 TT
  327. Dag Eikesdal, web developer & accessibility specialist
  328. Dylan M. Rafaty, Disability Rights Activist and Head of Accessibility Strategy & Partnerships at C-Hear, Inc.
  329. Randi Strunk, self
  330. Jörg Morsbach, anatom5
  331. Thomas Logan, Founder and CEO, Equal Entry
  332. Lindsay Reddick, self
  333. Mike Calvo, self
  334. Molly E. Holzschlag, Web Educator and Historian
  335. Armony Altinier, CEO & Accessibility Lead, Koena
  336. Olivier Camon, Web developer
  337. Liz Hare, PhD, Quantitative Geneticist, Dog Genetics LLC
  338. Luce Carević, Accessibility expert, Access42
  339. Roman Mkrtchian, Web developer, Koena
  340. Tori Clark, Accessibility Evangelist and Executive Director, Digital A11ies
  341. Sarah Jagrowski, Associate Product Designer, FiscalNote
  342. Jay Miles, Product Designer
  343. Benjamin Michoux, Front-end Engineer
  344. Daman Wandke, CEO/Founder, Wandke Consulting
  345. Laine Amoureux, CPWA, Independent Consultant, Amoureux AT Consulting
  346. Christian Vogler, Professor and Director, Technology Access Program, Gallaudet University
  347. Kevin Erickson, Accessibility Services Manager, Ablr
  348. Sanjay Nasta, CEO, Microassist
  349. Sue Brettell, Branding & UX Designer
  350. Steve Decker, self
  351. Fady Rizk, self
  352. Philip Fortier, Director, Perficient
  353. Natalie Stroud, self
  354. Kalib Watson, Accessibility Engineer II, Jackson
  355. Ryan Dudek, Software Engineer
  356. Jenia Walker, Microsoft
  357. Merrie McGaw, Microsoft
  358. Nir Baligar, Accessibility Engineering Lead, Microsoft
  359. Rob Gallo, Microsoft
  360. Maxime Preaux, Frontend Developer
  361. Mike Schwartz, Component Library Developer/Accessibility SME
  362. Eilana Benish, authorized Accessibility consultant from Israel
  363. Mohammad Suliman, blind master's degree computer science student, Tel Aviv University
  364. Shawn Hooper, Director of IT, Actionable.co
  365. Jim Allan, Accessibility Coordinator
  366. Trevor Attenberg, Access technology specialist, Portland community college
  367. Sandy Feldman, Self
  368. Geof Collis, Accessibility Advocate
  369. Martin Courcelles, Martin Assist Inc.
  370. Cynthia Bennett, Accessibility Researcher, Carnegie Mellon University
  371. Gayle Vivona, UW Writer, consultant, designIMPACT
  372. David Best, Accessibility IT Specialist and Advocate
  373. Alice Packard, Self
  374. Shawn Welker, Access Technology Apprentice, MABVI
  375. Soheil Varamini, CPWA, Accessibility Analyst, Microassist
  376. Marvin Hunkin, self
  377. Alison Walden, Accessibility Specialist, Sapient
  378. Geetha Somasundaram, Accessibility Specialist, Thomson Reuters
  379. Jon Plummer, Director of User Experience, Concentric Sky
  380. Jason Neel, Senior Web Developer, West Virginia University
  381. Angela Hooker, self
  382. Tommy Feldt, CPWA, Accessibility consultant, Useit
  383. Ida Franceen, Developer
  384. Jean-Claude Simpson, Front-end developer, Mangoweb
  385. Holly Schroeder, UX Researcher and Writer, a11y
  386. Roel Van Gils, WAS, Co-founder Eleven Ways
  387. Sara Soueidan, independent Web UI and design systems engineer
  388. Clive Loseby, Owner, Access by Design
  389. Afnizar Nur Ghifari, Product Designer
  390. Laura Bentz, CPACC, User Experience Interaction Designer, a well-known Fortune 500 banking institution
  391. Sarah Pulis, Director Accessibility Services, Intopia
  392. Adem Cifcioglu, Director Accessible Technologies, Intopia
  393. Stewart Hay, Managing Director, Intopia
  394. Chris Pycroft, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  395. Julie Grundy, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  396. Robin Whittleton, Engineering Manager
  397. Justin Wong, Full-Stack Developer, Project COSMIC Limited
  398. Jana Uhrich, Costco Wholesale
  399. Will Buckingham, Senior Front-End Engineer / Lead Accessibility Engineer, Prescriptive Data
  400. Doug Hayman, Accessibility Specialist & Trusted Tester
  401. Jules Ernst, Digital Accessibility Consultant, 200 OK
  402. Cory Joseph, self
  403. Amanda Ryan, Academic Technologist
  404. Sébastien Delorme, CEO, Ideance
  405. Nicolas Hoffmann, Senior Front-End developer / Accessibility advocate
  406. Yvain Liechti, Design System Engineer, UKG
  407. Sébastien Picq, Senior Front-End Engineer / Accessibility consultant
  408. Robin Massart, Policy Assistant on the Web Accessibility Directive, European Commission
  409. Chris M Law, Consultant, Accessibility Track
  410. Asaf Kuller , Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel,
  411. Ray Schwartz, Accessibility Consultant, InRhythm
  412. Guy Hickling, Freelance Accessibility Consultant
  413. Mario Vasquez, UX Designer
  414. Jérémy Renard, webdesigner / front-end developer
  415. Jan Pettersson, UI developer
  416. Jan Maarten, Designer & Accessibility Specialist
  417. Benjamin de Oostfreese, Front-end web developer
  418. Zhiyang Ong, Ph.D. student, Texas A&M University
  419. Caroline Desrosiers, Founder & CEO of Scribely
  420. Anthony LADEUIL, Consultant Accessibilité, Clever Age
  421. Danielle Sheffler, Accessibility Consultant
  422. George McKinlay Accessibility Consultant
  423. Jean-Baptiste Audras, WordPress Core team representative, former WordPress Accessibility team representative, Whodunit Agency head of technology, France
  424. Aaron Jorbin, Product and Engineering Leader
  425. Ethan Holliger, Accessibility Engineer
  426. Mike Vogel, Accessibility Consultant / UX Engineer
  427. Karli Yeoman, Accessibility Engineer, Expedia Group
  428. Carmen Matthews, Accessibility Specialist
  429. Kalani Helekunihi, Disabled Scientist
  430. Mark Boyden, IT Consultant, Web Developer, FOSS Contributor
  431. Andy Marino, Lead Developer, Unity Web Agency
  432. Alisa Herr, CEO, Unity Web Agency
  433. Jacqueline Pugliese, Accessibility Consultant
  434. Maurício Pereiro, Quality Assurance Analyst in Digital Accessibility
  435. Dr. Keith Newton. Technical Program Manager - Accessibility, eBay
  436. Franck Letrouvé, CEO, pixFL
  437. Tema Smith-Bosken, Senior A11y SME and Digital Marketing Senior Advisor Cigna
  438. Attila Bodnár, Web Developer, Accessibility Engineer
  439. Richard Thiel, Frontend Engineer & Accessibility Advocate, real.digital
  440. Stefan Farnetani, Digital Accessibility Specialist & CEO, mindscreen
  441. Lukáš Hosnedl, freelance translator, dev and accessibility consultant
  442. Frank Reding, Development Manager & Accessibility Advocate, Shopify
  443. Michael Telgkamp, Digital Accessibility Specialist & Developer, mindscreen
  444. Ginger Claassen, accessibility engineer / consultant
  445. Duff Johnson CEO, PDF Association
  446. Steve Green Managing Director Test Partners Ltd
  447. Jennifer Grenier, Software Engineer
  448. Okuto Oyama, Front-end Designer & Accessibility Advocate, Internet Watcher
  449. Quin Marilyn, programmer and accessibility advocate.
  450. Peter Quale, Lead Accessibility Consultant, Target Corp.
  451. Carlos Moreno, Software Engineer & Accessibility Advocate, Outsmartly
  452. Peter Heery, Accessibility Scotland
  453. Dirk Neyhart
  454. Lindsay Yazzolino, nonvisual accessibility designer, CVS Health
  455. Marc Haunschild, Accessibility Consultant, Author and Teacher
  456. David Murdoch, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Test Partners Ltd
  457. Tim Frick, President, Mightybytes
  458. Kathy Cahill, Associate Dean, Accessibility and Usability, MIT
  459. Greg McNeil, President/CEO, 216digital
  460. Bobby Graczyk, Accessibility Specialist, 216digital
  461. Joseph S. Levin, Portal Design
  462. Matthieu Marseille, Senior Front End Engineer and RGAA certified accessibility expert, ekino
  463. Asaf Kuller, Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel
  464. Wilmer Rodriguez Vega, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  465. David Dias, Front-End UX/UI Developer & Accessibility Advocate, Kijiji
  466. Kathleen Burkhardt, self
  467. Koen Cornelis, Web Accessibility Specialist, Belgium
  468. Sophie Ragas, Web Accessibility Consultant
  469. Holger Dieterich, Chairman Wheelmap.org, Co-Founder Sozialhelden e.V.
  470. Sebbe Isaac Kurian, UX Designer
  471. Mike Gifford, CivicActions
  472. Jennifer Shepherd, web accessibility specialist
  473. Matthew Shaw, Managing Partner, Disability Solutions
  474. Rodrigo Sanchez, Senior Accessibility Specialist Square Enix West
  475. Amber DeRosa, Accessibility Lead
  476. Paweł Prot, UX and accessibility specialist
  477. Clément Fresneau, accessibility consultant for Empreinte Digitale
  478. Justin Ekis, IT Student, Southwest Tennessee Community College
  479. Joe Ortenzi, Lead Experience Designer, Australian Digital Health Agency
  480. Darren Bates, Global Accessibility and Inclusion Strategist, Darren Bates, LLC
  481. Wilmer Rodriguez Vega, consultant and evaluator for visual accessibility

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