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Overlay Fact Sheet

Introduction, definition, and history of web accessibility overlays

Overlays are a broad term for technologies aimed at improving the accessibility of a website by applying third-party source code (typically JavaScript) to make improvements to the front-end code of the website.

Website add-on products purporting to improve accessibility go back to the late 1990s with products like Readspeaker and Browsealoud. Both of which added text-to-speech capabilities to the website(s) on which they were installed.

Later, similar products came to market that added additional tools to their software that allow user-based control of things like font-sizes and changes to the web pages colors so that contrast is improved. Products like Userway, EqualWeb, AudioEye, User1st, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, Purple Lens, and accessiBe fall into this category. These products are sometimes also white labelled under additional names and the above is not an exhaustive list of products with which this Fact Sheet is aimed at.

Strengths and weaknesses of overlay “widgets”

Overlay widgets are unnecessary and are poorly placed in the technology stack.

As stated above, some overlay products contain widgets which present a series of controls that modify the presentation of the page they're on. Depending on the product, those changes may do things like change the page contrast, enlarge the size of the page's text, or perform other changes to the page that are intended to improve the experience for users with disabilities.

To laypersons, these features may seem beneficial, but their practical value is largely overstated because the end users that these features claim to serve will already have the necessary features on their computer, either as a built-in feature or as an additional piece of software that the user needs to access not only the Web but all software.

On this latter point, it is a mistake to believe that the features provided by the overlay widget will be of much use by end users because if those features were necessary to use the website, they'd be needed for all websites that the user interacts with. Instead, the widget is  as—at best—redundant functionality with what the user already has.

Strengths and weaknesses of automated repair

While some automated repair is possible, customers should be discouraged from using an overlay as a long-term solution.

Some overlay products have capabilities aimed at providing accessibility repairs to the underlying page on which the overlay is added. These repairs are applied when the page loads in the user's browser.

While it is true that a non-trivial array of accessibility problems can be repaired in this manner, the nature, extent, and accuracy of such repair are limited by a number of important factors:

In addition to the above, overlays do not repair content in Flash, Java, Silverlight, PDF, HTML5 Canvas, SVG, or media files.

An additional class of product exists, which only perform automated repairs and are marketed as a temporary solution. These include Amaze by Deque Systems, Alchemy by Level Access, and Sentinel by Tenon.

For purposes of this document, these products aren't considered to be in the same class of product as the overlays that provide widgets. The most notable difference, beyond the lack of a “widget” is that Amaze, Alchemy, and Sentinel are understood by their manufacturers as being intended for use as an interim solution.

Fitness for achieving compliance with accessibility standards

While the use of an overlay may improve compliance with a handful of provisions in major accessibility standards, full compliance cannot be achieved with an overlay.

Among the many claims made by overlay vendors is the claim that the use of their product will being the site into compliance with accessibility standards such as WCAG 2.x, related and derivative standards, and laws that mandate compliance with those standards.

Conformance to a standard means that you meet or satisfy the ‘requirements’ of the standard. In WCAG 2.0 the ‘requirements’ are the Success Criteria. To conform to WCAG 2.0, you need to satisfy the Success Criteria, that is, there is no content which violates the Success Criteria. Understanding WCAG 2.1: Understanding Conformance

Given that conformance is defined as meeting all requirements of the standard, these products' documented inability to repair all possible issues means that they cannot bring a website into compliance. Products marketed with such claims should be viewed with significant scepticism.

Privacy of personal data

Overlays that automatically enable certain settings, like those for screen reader or speech recognition users, do so by detecting when an assistive technology is running on the device. This exposes the fact that the person using the device at the time has a disability. In certain cases, like screen reader users where the majority are blind or have low vision, it exposes even more detail about the nature of their disability. Like age, ethnic background, or preferred gender, disability is sensitive personal information. It is not data that should be collected without the informed consent of the person it belongs to.

Some overlays have been found to persist users' settings across sites which use the same overlay. This is done by setting a cookie on the user's computer. When the user enables a setting for an overlay feature on one site, the overlay will automatically turn on that feature on other sites. While the overlay company might think they're doing good by the end user, the big privacy problem is that the user never opted in to be tracked and there's also no ability to opt-out. Due to this lack of an opt-out (other than explicitly turning off that setting) this creates GDPR and CCPA risk for the overlay customer.

In their own words

Many users with disabilities have expressed strong words of dissatisfaction with overlay products. As shown below, overlays themselves may have accessibility problems significant enough for users to take steps to actively block overlays from appearing at all.

Please note: while this section may mention specific vendors, these comments are par-for-the-course when it comes to the user experience provided by overlay widgets which have, in themselves, a pattern of negatively impacting the user experience.

...assuming your tool can do a good job making something accessible, it can do an even better job making something accessible running directly on the user's machine having access to machine code and machine APIs DerekRiemer
...I finally managed to gain access to my @NameCheap account by blocking #AccessiBe in my Windows Hosts file. I should not need to do this to use the Internet. AccessiBe needs to AccessiBeGone WilfSplodNokit
...I know with 100% certainty, any site which has deployed an overlay in the past year and a half has been less useable for both my wife and me—both blind. GeauxEnder
...Still a pain to even try reading the article on a mobile device because of the constant interruption every few seconds. Considering every site using your service also has this problem… Nope. Big_D01
...Making a webpage accessible does take work, and simply telling a business they can install your plugin is absolutely foolish, you build, and design accessibility in to a webpage using WCAG standards. w9fyi
...Suggesting one line of code is cheap so you should do it by inference suggests disabled lives aren't worth investing in either. #a11y Kevmarmol_CT
@AccessiBe Just to demonstrate my good faith, here's a quick free audit of https://t.co/1mQGCCtnIs. You capture "tab" which is the standard way to navigate. There's no way to not enable your overlay if I want to navigate the page. Once the overlay is enabled, wild things happen. eluberoff
#AccessiBe makes sites harder to use by getting in the way of browsing and changing access barriers on a page, not fixing them. A student and I came across an "enhanced" website and to my shame, we left because navigating that mess was beyond my skills, on that day. turtlecatpurrz
Accessibility overlays are not the answer, and AccessiBe is no exception. As a screen reader user, numerous sites have become less usable for me with this overlay. Discrediting reputable accessiblity professionals and advocates will not sway me on this view. https://t.co/ZgFt8JtsbZ SingingTigress
An die Screen Reader nutzenden Follower: Vielleicht habt ihr schon von #Accessibe gehört, einem Overlay, das behauptet, Seiten, in denen es eingebunden ist, zugänglicher zu machen. Ich möchte nicht näher ins Detail gehen. Kurz gesagt: Kompletter Blödsinn. Finger weg! MarcoZehe
Automated solutions which promise to make your site accessible can't. It takes more than automation to achieve this requirement. You won't be safe from liability. you will almost assuredly negatively impact your customers with disabilities. twithoff
Every time I go on a website and I hear the #accessiBe notification that this site is adjusted to my screen reader, I know that my blocker isn't working properly, and I'm in for a hellish experience on that particular website. https://t.co/ZFzKMfUe0t BorrisInABox
I tried using this @AccessiBe site with VoiceOver in Chrome on iOS. The 4-star rating is announced as "unpronounceable" 🤦‍♀️ https://t.co/f4MxQ2eLLP" racheleditullio
I wrote an email to their customer service detailing that I can not use their site due to the overlay, but… I really am disappointed, but I hope they listen. @Goodfair_ - please stop using AccessiBe. kit_flowerstorm
I'm not an accessibility expert, just a screen reader user with decent skills telling you that this thread is spot on and my experience with #AccessiBe is that it makes sites with accessibility issues even harder to work around. https://t.co/cfyrEqXwTy atfarnum
...If you are blind or low vision and rely on assistive technologies like screen readers, you may have begun finding popular websites becoming less usable… this page describes how to ban AccessiBe from ever reaching your computer… https://t.co/qbiKvolizS smartudlab
OK, this seems very wrong to me. A local chain here named Fleet Farm is now using AccessiBe. It makes a mess of the search for location feature. This is what I now get on the start of the result page. kellylford
Thank goodness Firefox blocks their accessibility detection. For me, focus jumps all over the place with #AccessiBe enabled. When it's disabled, it behaves itself. mhorspool
There are 0 automated tools that can tetect accessibility problems accurately at anything above 30% of the time. 0. This is commonly known by anyone who's been in this space for at least a week. #AccessiBe cswordpress
There's a perfectly practical tool for making websites accessible. It's called a programmer. The needs that matter in making a website accessible are those of the users. If you can't meet those, then you can't meet the basic costs of doing business. WTBDavidG
When #AccessiBe is enabled, the page is flooded with headings. Lots of heading level 2's. The title of each phone remains a heading in both versions of the page, but with it enabled, things like cost, display, and all the other components of the tables become headings as well. CatchTheseWords

Conclusion

No overlay product on the market can cause a website to become fully compliant with any existing accessibility standard and therefore cannot eliminate legal risk.

Accessibility on the Web is a big challenge, both for owners of websites and for the users of those websites. The invention of novel approaches to resolving this challenge is to be commended.

However, in the case of overlays—especially those which attempt to add widgets that present assistive features—the challenge is not being met. Even more problematic are the deceptive marketing provided by some overlay vendors who promise that implementing their product will give their customer's sites immediate compliance with laws and standards.

The ineffectiveness of overlays is something that has broad agreement among accessibility practitioners, per the WebAIM Survey of Web Accessibility Practitioners which found:

A strong majority (67%) of respondents rate these tools as not at all or not very effective. Respondents with disabilities were even less favorable with 72% rating them not at all or not very effective, and only 2.4% rating them as very effective.

Statement from sponsors and signatories to this fact sheet

As a result of the above information:

  1. We will never advocate, recommend, or integrate an overlay which deceptively markets itself as providing automated compliance with laws or standards.
  2. We will always advocate for the remediation of accessibility issues at the source of the original error.
  3. We will refuse to stay silent when overlay vendors use deception to market their products.
  4. More specifically, we hereby advocate for the removal of accessiBe, AudioEye, UserWay, User1st, MK-Sense, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, and all similar products and encourage the site owners who've implemented these products to use more robust, independent, and permanent strategies to making their sites more accessible.

Signed by:

  1. Karl Groves, Founder and President, Tenon.io
  2. Bill Dengler, totally blind computer science student and code contributor to the NVDA screen reader, Swarthmore College, Philadelphia
  3. Nicolas Steenhout, Independent accessibility consultant
  4. Rian Rietveld, web accessibility specialist, Level Level
  5. Weston Thayer, Founder, Assistiv Labs
  6. Denis Boudreau, Accessibility consultant
  7. Meryl K. Evans, accessibility advocate
  8. Makoto Ueki, Web accessibility consultant, Infoaxia
  9. Michael Spellacy, Accessibility Consultant
  10. Helen Burge, Accessibility Consultant
  11. Léonie Watson, Director, TetraLogical
  12. Eric Eggert, Co-Founder, outline
  13. Dale Reardon - Founder & CEO of TravelForAll.Guide
  14. Jason Gill - Certified Web Accessibility Specialist
  15. Michael Ausbun, CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  16. Ronny Hendriks - Accessibility Consultant, Toegankelijk Online
  17. Charles Hall, Invited Expert W3C AGWG
  18. Hai Nguyen Ly, Accessibility Advocate
  19. David Luhr, Accessibility Consultant
  20. Justin L. Yarbrough, Accessibility Specialist, Rio Salado College
  21. Hidde de Vries, accessibility specialist and front-end developer
  22. James Fleeting, Technical Director, Monkee-Boy
  23. Alex Tait, Accessibility Specialist, AT Fresh Solutions
  24. Michael Fairchild, Accessibility consultant
  25. Gijs Veyfeyken, web accessibility specialist, Five Oaks
  26. Dennis Lembree, Web Axe & Easy Chirp
  27. Adrian Roselli
  28. Rob Whiting, Head of Research & Design, Merlan Ltd.
  29. Kitty Giraudel, Accessibility Specialist, Gorillas
  30. Derek Mohr, Front-end Developer, Mighty in the Midwest
  31. Alastair Campbell, Director of Accessibility, Nomensa
  32. Anders Fredericksen, Level Access
  33. Zoë Bijl, Senior Accessibility Engineer, CrowdStrike
  34. Jonathan Avila, Level Access
  35. Sheri Byrne-Haber, Senior accessibility evangelist
  36. Jared Smith, Associate Director, WebAIM
  37. Kazuhito Kidachi
  38. Yakim van Zuijlen, Designer
  39. Shannon Urban, Director of Accessibility, EVERFI
  40. Todd Libby, Accessibility Advocate and Consultant
  41. David Monnehay, Atalan
  42. Joschi Kuphal, CPWA & CEO, tollwerk
  43. Romain Deltour, web/accessibility/ebook specialist
  44. Craig Francis, Code Poets Limited
  45. Erik Gustafsson, Accessibility Specialist, Axess Lab
  46. Dan Payne, Accessibility consultant
  47. Ben Tillyer
  48. Matt Obee, Senior Product Designer and accessibility specialist, NearForm
  49. Florian Beijers, Accessibility Consultant, Developer, Screenreader User
  50. Donna Vitan, Design Systems Nerd
  51. Ruben Nic, Web Accessibility/Senior Engineer, Webflow
  52. Dennis Deacon, Accessibility Consultant
  53. Nicolas Loye, CTO, Actency
  54. Rachele DiTullio, accessibility engineer, CPWA
  55. Gerard K. Cohen, self
  56. Dr. Kate Deibel, Inclusion and Accessibility Librarian, Syracuse University Libraries
  57. Vincent Aniort, digital accessibility expert, Orange SA
  58. Arthur Rigaud, Accessibility Specialist and Front-End Developer
  59. Gary Jones, WordPress VIP
  60. Andrew Nevins, CPWA, Front-end developer
  61. Chris Heilmann, Principal Product Manager for Developer Tools
  62. Bruce Lawson, greedy accessibility consultant
  63. Peter Goes, Front-end developer, De Voorhoede
  64. Geoff Mortstock, Accessibility Consultant
  65. Marcus Herrmann, Web Accessibility Specialist and front-end developer
  66. Kelly Childs, Lead Developer, Be Accessible, Inc.
  67. Matthew Hallonbacka
  68. Kelly Wills, Access Technology Specialist, CPWA
  69. Joan Preston, Web Accessibility Coordinator, California State University, Long Beach
  70. Jon Gibbins, digital accessibility consultant, Dotjay Ltd
  71. Alicia Jarvis
  72. Anthony Fernando, CPWA, Accessibility QA Manager, Pearson
  73. Jennifer Strickland, Senior HCD + Accessibility Engineer at MITRE, Accessibility Consultant at Level Access
  74. Lainey Feingold - lawyer and author, Law Office of Lainey Feingold
  75. Andrew Hayward, Accessibility Engineer
  76. Jean Ducrot, Accessibility Engineer, CPWA
  77. Manuel Razzari - Accessibility educator, Buenos Aires National Technological University, Argentina
  78. Zack Kline, Accessibility Tester, ISoftStone
  79. Anna E. Cook - Senior Product Designer and Accessibility Specialist
  80. Christophe Strobbe, researcher and lecturer in HCI and accessibility, Stuttgart Media University
  81. Eric Bailey, The A11Y Project Maintainer
  82. Andre Polykanine, software engineer, web accessibility specialist, screen reader user
  83. Ben Myers, Software Engineer
  84. Eric Bednarz, self
  85. Olivier Keul, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  86. Bogdan Cerovac, WAS, front-end developer and accessibility lead
  87. Lori Samuels, Accessibility Director, NBCUniversal
  88. Ryan Leisinger - UX Manager Department of Licensing WA State
  89. Ian Lloyd, Accessibility Engineer
  90. Pavel Pomerantsev, web accessibility engineer, Squarespace
  91. Dominik Wilkowski, People Director, Thinkmill
  92. Rowdy Rabouw, web and app developer, double-R webdevelopment
  93. Jen Smith, Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  94. Toufic Sbeiti, accessibility advocate
  95. Amy Carney, CPWA, accessibility consultant & front-end web developer, Digilou
  96. Carly Gerard CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Western Washington University
  97. Haben Girma, Human Rights Lawyer
  98. Katriel Paige, Accessibility Consultant, Fox Design Studios LLC
  99. Adrianne Mallett, Software Engineer
  100. Krista Greear
  101. Kim Krause Berg, CPACC Accessibility and UX Consultant
  102. Joseph Dolson
  103. Ashley Hannan, Accessibility Advocate
  104. Cara Hall, Accessibility Advocate
  105. Paul Grenier, Web Developer
  106. Glenda Sims, Accessibility consultant
  107. JF Hector Labram, WAS, Principal Front-End Engineer, Kooth Plc
  108. Anne-Mieke Bovelett, Accessibility Advocate
  109. Radimir Bitsov, Web Accessibility and Performance Engineer
  110. Beatriz González Mellídez, Principal Product Design, CPWA, CPUX-RE
  111. Wilfred Nas, Product Owner / User interface consultant
  112. Shawn Thompson, Digital Accessibility Advocate
  113. Kim Johannesen, CEO and Accessibility Consultant, Shift ApS
  114. Marco Hengstenberg, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant
  115. Nicola Saunders, Front-End Developer, Studio 24 Ltd
  116. Rogier Barendregt, Senior digital product designer, Rg/B
  117. Jeremy Keith, Founder, Clearleft
  118. Kasper Isager, Software Developer
  119. Angela P. Ricci, Web Designer/ Front dev
  120. Matt Jiggins, Developer/Designer
  121. Stefan Wajda, LepszyWeb.pl, digital accessibility specialist
  122. Sina Bahram, President, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  123. Kristina England, Accessibility Specialist, University of Massachusetts President's Office
  124. Birkir Gunnarsson, CPWA, digital accessibility lead
  125. Kerstin Probiesch, Accessibility Consultant
  126. Radek Pavlíček, CPWA, Accessibility Specialist, Teiresias Centre Masaryk University & Poslepu.cz
  127. Billy Gregory, TPGi
  128. Thomas Logan
  129. Brian Elton, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  130. Kevin Mar-Molinero, Director of Experience Technologies Kin+Carta Connect, Member of BIMA Inclusive Design Council.
  131. Crystal Preston-Watson, Quality and Accessibility Engineer
  132. Bob Dodd, Accessibility Consultant
  133. Chauncey McAskill
  134. David Swallow, Accessibility Engineer
  135. Marko Milanović, Developer, Tenon.io
  136. Joe Lamyman, Development Specialist
  137. Kevin Ackley, Accessibility Tech Consultant
  138. Stephen Clower, Software Developer and Accessibility Lead, Desmos, Inc.
  139. Nicolas Chardon, Digital Accessibility Expert
  140. Steve Faulkner, Chief Accessibility Officer, TPGi
  141. Andy Bell, Designer and Educator
  142. Patrick H. Lauke, Accessibility Trash Panda
  143. Yann Kozon, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant, Freelance
  144. Chris Taylor, Web Nerd, Yorkshire Twist
  145. Miriam Suzanne, Agency Co-Founder & W3C Invited Expert
  146. Robert Jolly, Product Manager & Accessibility Strategist
  147. Lena Chandelier, Accessibility Expert, Front-end Developer
  148. Thomas Parisot, Old Timey Web Developer
  149. Jesse Menn, Principal Web Developer
  150. Wendy Reid, Accessibility Lead
  151. Scott O'Hara, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  152. Phil Springall
  153. Dr Carl Myhill, Director, User Experience Design Limited
  154. Sumner M. Davenport, Specialist Web Accessibility
  155. Dana Byerly, Interaction Designer
  156. Jamie Knight, self
  157. Matt Richardson, Web Accessibility Expert
  158. Josephine Schwebler, Senior Consultant Accessibility / Accessible Documents
  159. Vegard Haugstvedt, Front-end Developer / Accessibility Specialist, Webstep
  160. Mikołaj Rotnicki, http://a11y.report, accessibility specialist
  161. William Bunch - Accessibility Consultant
  162. Kris Rivenburgh, Chief Accessibility & Legal Officer, Essential Accessibility
  163. Paul Kruczynski, Front-End UX/UI Developer
  164. Matthias Weston, Accessibility-Centered Freelance Developer
  165. Mat Harris, Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  166. Lindsey Dragun, Developer / Accessibility Advocate
  167. Michail Yasonik, Senior Software Engineer
  168. Marcy Sutton, Independent Web Developer and Accessibility Specialist
  169. Talita Pagani, Accessibility and UX Consultant, Research Scientist in Web Accessibility for Neurodiversity
  170. Aaron Chu, UI Engineer + Disability & Design Researcher
  171. Adam Saucier, Web Accessibility Specialist
  172. Arnaud Delafosse, Web Quality & Accessibility Consultant, Temesis
  173. J.J. Meddaugh, Owner, A. T. Guys.
  174. Nicki Rios, CPWA, Founder, Accessibility Consultant & Engineer, Nock & Sparrow
  175. John E Brandt, head dude, jebswebs
  176. Heather Gray, Website Developer
  177. Santina Croniser, Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware
  178. Stein Erik Skotkjerra, Accessibility consultant, CEO, Inklusio
  179. Bruno Pulis, Accessibility Advocate, Creator of Awesome A11y
  180. Brittany Roots, Accessibility Consultant
  181. James Nurthen, Accessibility Engineer & co-chair ARIA Working Group
  182. Shell Little, Inclusive Design Lead and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  183. Carlos Eriksson, Accessibility Lead, Studio 24
  184. Steven Mouret, Digital Accessibility Expert
  185. Adam Page, UX Designer
  186. David A. Kennedy, Designer and Accessibility Weekly curator
  187. Marc Solomon, self
  188. Ron Stauffer, Founder, Lieder Digital
  189. Nick Caskey, CPWA & Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware Inc.
  190. Devon Persing, Technical Program Manager and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  191. Brian Olore, Developer
  192. Kathleen McMahon, Engineer, Designer, and Speaker
  193. Will Slone, Accessibility Engineer
  194. Peter Weil, Web Developer
  195. Brennan Young, Accessibility specialist, Laerdal Medical
  196. Emanuela Gorla, Accessibility Specialist, TetraLogical
  197. Paweł Choiński, Front-End Developer
  198. Eric Hind, Accessibility Specialist
  199. Sylvie Duchateau, Web Accessibility Consultant, Access42
  200. Rachel Cherry, Accessibility Specialist, Director of WPCampus, and Director of Technology and Design, Equal Made
  201. Lucy Greco, Accessaces
  202. John Lukosky, Accessibility Specialist
  203. Jennifer Grant, Senior Accessibility Engineer, Educational Testing Service
  204. Károly Szántai, WAS
  205. Sarah E. Lynch, Accessibility Engineer
  206. L. Jeffrey Zeldman
  207. Paul Shryock, WordPress Engineer, NBA
  208. Nick Colley
  209. Carlin Scuderi, Front End Developer
  210. Nicolas Zerr, Digital Accessibility Expert
  211. Derek Featherstone, Chief Experience Officer, Level Access
  212. Corey Megown, Front-End Developer
  213. Marcelo Sales, Accessibility Specialist, RD (Raia Drogasil)
  214. Scott Vinkle, Accessibility Specialist, Shopify
  215. Barry Pollard, Developer
  216. Anand Chowdhary, Creative Technologist & Entrepreneur
  217. Christian Alden Jacobs, UX Strategist
  218. Edward Pritchard, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  219. Hadley Luker, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  220. John Foliot (JF), Independent Accessibility Specialist / W3C Contributor
  221. Cullan Bonilla, Accessibility Specialist
  222. EJ Mason, Accessibility Specialist
  223. Michele Williams, Accessibility and UX Consultant
  224. Hala Anwar, Inclusive Design Consultant
  225. Johnny Taylor, Accessibility Advocate
  226. Joel McKinnon, Accessibility Specialist
  227. Olivier Nourry, General Manager & CAO, Be Player One
  228. Ross Mullen, Director, CANAXESS
  229. Steve Woodson, Developer
  230. Joe Yang, Senior UX Designer – Accessibility, ServiceNow
  231. Lee Bartholomew, Website Designer
  232. Amanda J. Rush, Self
  233. John H. Carson Jr., retired escalations specialist, Freedom Scientific
  234. Ka Li, Accessibility Consultant
  235. Adele M. Beeby, Web Manager, Leicester City Council
  236. James Scholes, Director of Digital Accessibility, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  237. Ian Kersey, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  238. Aaron Gustafson, Web Standards & Accessibility Advocate
  239. Wally Zielinski, WAS, Dell Technologies
  240. Martin Mengele, Front End Developer & Accessibilty Consultant, @accessabilly)
  241. Gaël Poupard, Lead dev, OnePoint
  242. Philip Kiff, D4K Communications
  243. Tim Kraut, Senior Frontend Developer, AWESOME! Software GmbH
  244. Jennifer Panighetti, Web Developer
  245. Jasmine Kaul, Founder and Digital Content Consultant, Happy Words
  246. Ian Hamilton, accessibility specialist
  247. Margie Chubin, Software Engineer
  248. Joe Lanman, Designer
  249. Jude Robinson, Global Head of Frontend Development, Springer Nature
  250. Luc Poupard, Front-end designer and WordPress developer, Proton Technologies
  251. David Sloan, UX Research Lead, TPGi
  252. Grady Thompson, Student, University of Washington
  253. Claudio Luis Vera, Accessibility leader, analyst, and public speaker
  254. Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo, Fundación Sidar - Acceso Universal
  255. Homer Gaines, UI Engineer, and Accessibility Specialist
  256. Carolina Aguilera, Accessibility Consultant, Chile
  257. Kara Franco, CPWA, Accessibility Engineer
  258. Sarah Higley, Accessibility Specialist & Software Developer, Microsoft
  259. Benoît Dequick, Front-end dev & RGAA expert
  260. Peter Bossley, self
  261. Jennifer Gorfine, UX Engineer & Web Accessibility Specialist
  262. Heather Migliorisi, Web Accessibility Specialist
  263. Thinh-Lay Wonesky, Accessibility Consultant, Allerlay Wonesky Media
  264. Robert Kingett, Blind author
  265. Frances Jurek, Software Engineer
  266. Owen Edwards, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  267. Jennifer Zhang, Senior Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  268. Michael Vaughn, Accessibility Manager
  269. Desiree White
  270. Marco Salsiccia, Accessibility Specialist, Lyft
  271. Carter Temm, Accessibility Consultant
  272. Silvia Ceria, Interior Designer and Content Creator, DforDesign
  273. Maurizio Lepora, Full-Stack Developer, Lemaur
  274. Jared Clayton, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  275. Dirk Ginader, UX Engineer, Google
  276. Cordelia McGee-Tubb, Accessibility Engineer
  277. Ethan Marcotte, web designer, author of "Responsive Web Design"
  278. Jory Cunningham, Accessibility Engineer
  279. Lee White, Front-End & Accessibility Engineer
  280. Richard Boardman, Senior Director, Product Accessibility
  281. David Peter, Software Engineer
  282. Stefan Judis, Web Developer
  283. Dean Birkett, UX Designer & Accessibility Consultant
  284. Myles Lewando, Web Developer & Accessibility Specialist
  285. Michael Dowden, CEO, Andromeda Galactic Solutions, author of "Approachable Accessibility"
  286. Abdullah Norozi Iranzad, Web Developer
  287. Allison Ravenhall, Accessibility Consultant
  288. Ian Pouncey, Director, TetraLogical
  289. Chancey Fleet, Technology Educator
  290. Amanda Mace General Manager, Web Key IT
  291. Wendy Torres, Senior Instructional Technologist
  292. Janos Sitar, Web Accessibility Specialist, Central 1 Credit Union
  293. Dave Bahr, CEO of In-Sightful Living
  294. Momin Pasha Mohammed, CPWA, Accessibility Consultant
  295. Holly Scott-Gardner, usability assessor and disability rights advocate
  296. Sara Cousins, Mighty Spark Design
  297. Roger Fracé, Quality Assurance Specialist
  298. Pierre Albert, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  299. Colleen Gratzer, Creative Boost and Gratzer Graphics LLC
  300. Kara Goldfinch
  301. Sally Thoun, Accessibility Consultant
  302. Ajaz Mohammed, Accessibility Test Consultant, HCL Canada Inc.
  303. Vincent Martin, Usercessible, LLC.
  304. Jessie Lorenz
  305. Amy Mason, Access Technology Specialist, San Francisco Lighthouse for the Blind
  306. Nadia Rasul, CPACC, Front-end Developer and Accessibility Lead
  307. Catherine M. Stager, Accessibility and Assistive Technology Specialist, Front Range Community College
  308. Avi Chandiramani, Program Manager for Accessible Technology Services, San Francisco State University
  309. Wink Harner Professor of Adaptive Technology In Higher Education/CUNY graduate school
  310. Annie Heckel, Lead Accessibility Auditor, Online ADA
  311. Courtney Heitman, Technical Accessibility Specialist
  312. Simon Bonaventure, Accessibility consultant, Empreinte Digitale
  313. Eric Wright
  314. Deborah Kaplan, Accessibility Lead, Suberic Networks
  315. Carie Fisher, Sr. Accessibility consultant, Deque
  316. Scott Boren, Accessibility manager
  317. Josie Davidson, Associate Accessibility Specialist
  318. Matt Campbell, Chief Technology Officer, Pneuma Solutions
  319. Quentin Bellanger, Front-end developer, /tmp
  320. Al Romano, Web Developer, Virtually(Creative)
  321. Derek Riemer, Frontend web application Developer, NVDA screen reader contributor
  322. Isabel Del Castillo, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  323. Nic Chan, Front-End Developer
  324. Jeremy Neander, Senior Front End Engineer
  325. Nick Croft, Senior Full Stack Web Developer, WAS, CPACC, CPWA, 508 TT
  326. Dag Eikesdal, web developer & accessibility specialist
  327. Dylan M. Rafaty, Disability Rights Activist and Head of Accessibility Strategy & Partnerships at C-Hear, Inc.
  328. Randi Strunk, self
  329. Jörg Morsbach, anatom5
  330. Thomas Logan, Founder and CEO, Equal Entry
  331. Lindsay Reddick, self
  332. Mike Calvo, self
  333. Molly E. Holzschlag, Web Educator and Historian
  334. Armony Altinier, CEO & Accessibility Lead, Koena
  335. Olivier Camon, Web developer
  336. Liz Hare, PhD, Quantitative Geneticist, Dog Genetics LLC
  337. Luce Carević, Accessibility expert, Access42
  338. Roman Mkrtchian, Web developer, Koena
  339. Tori Clark, Accessibility Evangelist and Executive Director, Digital A11ies
  340. Sarah Jagrowski, Associate Product Designer, FiscalNote
  341. Jay Miles, Product Designer
  342. Benjamin Michoux, Front-end Engineer
  343. Daman Wandke, CEO/Founder, Wandke Consulting
  344. Laine Amoureux, CPWA, Independent Consultant, Amoureux AT Consulting
  345. Christian Vogler, Professor and Director, Technology Access Program, Gallaudet University
  346. Kevin Erickson, Accessibility Services Manager, Ablr
  347. Sanjay Nasta, CEO, Microassist
  348. Sue Brettell, Branding & UX Designer
  349. Steve Decker, self
  350. Fady Rizk, self
  351. Philip Fortier, Director, Perficient
  352. Natalie Stroud, self
  353. Kalib Watson, Accessibility Engineer II, Jackson
  354. Ryan Dudek, Software Engineer
  355. Jenia Walker, Microsoft
  356. Merrie McGaw, Microsoft
  357. Nir Baligar, Accessibility Engineering Lead, Microsoft
  358. Rob Gallo, Microsoft
  359. Maxime Preaux, Frontend Developer
  360. Mike Schwartz, Component Library Developer/Accessibility SME
  361. Eilana Benish, authorized Accessibility consultant from Israel
  362. Mohammad Suliman, blind master's degree computer science student, Tel Aviv University
  363. Shawn Hooper, Director of IT, Actionable.co
  364. Jim Allan, Accessibility Coordinator
  365. Trevor Attenberg, Access technology specialist, Portland community college
  366. Sandy Feldman, Self
  367. Geof Collis, Accessibility Advocate
  368. Martin Courcelles, Martin Assist Inc.
  369. Cynthia Bennett, Accessibility Researcher, Carnegie Mellon University
  370. Gayle Vivona, UW Writer, consultant, designIMPACT
  371. David Best, Accessibility IT Specialist and Advocate
  372. Alice Packard, Self
  373. Shawn Welker, Access Technology Apprentice, MABVI
  374. Soheil Varamini, CPWA, Accessibility Analyst, Microassist
  375. Marvin Hunkin, self
  376. Alison Walden, Accessibility Specialist, Sapient
  377. Geetha Somasundaram, Accessibility Specialist, Thomson Reuters
  378. Jon Plummer, Director of User Experience, Concentric Sky
  379. Jason Neel, Senior Web Developer, West Virginia University
  380. Angela Hooker, self
  381. Tommy Feldt, CPWA, Accessibility consultant, Useit
  382. Ida Franceen, Developer
  383. Jean-Claude Simpson, Front-end developer, Mangoweb
  384. Holly Schroeder, UX Researcher and Writer, a11y
  385. Roel Van Gils, WAS, Co-founder Eleven Ways
  386. Sara Soueidan, independent Web UI and design systems engineer
  387. Clive Loseby, Owner, Access by Design
  388. Afnizar Nur Ghifari, Product Designer
  389. Laura Bentz, CPACC, User Experience Interaction Designer, a well-known Fortune 500 banking institution
  390. Sarah Pulis, Director Accessibility Services, Intopia
  391. Adem Cifcioglu, Director Accessible Technologies, Intopia
  392. Stewart Hay, Managing Director, Intopia
  393. Chris Pycroft, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  394. Julie Grundy, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  395. Robin Whittleton, Engineering Manager
  396. Justin Wong, Full-Stack Developer, Project COSMIC Limited
  397. Jana Uhrich, Costco Wholesale
  398. Will Buckingham, Senior Front-End Engineer / Lead Accessibility Engineer, Prescriptive Data
  399. Doug Hayman, Accessibility Specialist & Trusted Tester
  400. Jules Ernst, Digital Accessibility Consultant, 200 OK
  401. Cory Joseph, self
  402. Amanda Ryan, Academic Technologist
  403. Sébastien Delorme, CEO, Ideance
  404. Nicolas Hoffmann, Senior Front-End developer / Accessibility advocate
  405. Yvain Liechti, Design System Engineer, UKG
  406. Sébastien Picq, Senior Front-End Engineer / Accessibility consultant
  407. Robin Massart, Policy Assistant on the Web Accessibility Directive, European Commission
  408. Chris M Law, Consultant, Accessibility Track
  409. Asaf Kuller , Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel,
  410. Ray Schwartz, Accessibility Consultant, InRhythm
  411. Guy Hickling, Freelance Accessibility Consultant
  412. Mario Vasquez, UX Designer
  413. Jérémy Renard, webdesigner / front-end developer
  414. Jan Pettersson, UI developer
  415. Jan Maarten, Designer & Accessibility Specialist
  416. Benjamin de Oostfreese, Front-end web developer
  417. Zhiyang Ong, Ph.D. student, Texas A&M University
  418. Caroline Desrosiers, Founder & CEO of Scribely
  419. Anthony LADEUIL, Consultant Accessibilité, Clever Age
  420. Danielle Sheffler, Accessibility Consultant
  421. George McKinlay Accessibility Consultant

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