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Overlay Fact Sheet

What is a web accessibility overlay?

Overlays are a broad term for technologies that aim to improve the accessibility of a website. They apply third-party source code (typically JavaScript) to make improvements to the front-end code of the website.

Website add-on products claiming to improve accessibility go back to the late 1990s with products like Readspeaker and Browsealoud. They added text-to-speech capabilities to the website(s) on which they were installed.

Then similar products came to market that added more tools to their software. These allow user-based control of things like font-sizes and colors to improve readability.

Some newer overlay products aim to fix any problems in the site's code that are preventing assistive technology from being used easily. They apply a script to the page which scans the code and automatically attempts to repair the problem.

Products like Userway, EqualWeb, AudioEye, User1st, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, Purple Lens, and accessiBe are known as accessibility overlays. They are sometimes white labelled (sold under other names), so this is not a complete list of the type of products discussed on this page.

Strengths and weaknesses of overlay “widgets”

Overlay widgets are unnecessary and are poorly placed in the technology stack.

As stated above, some overlay products contain widgets which present a series of controls that modify the presentation of the page they're on. Depending on the product, those changes may do things like change the page contrast, enlarge the size of the page's text, or perform other changes to the page that are intended to improve the experience for users with disabilities.

To laypersons, these features may seem beneficial, but their practical value is largely overstated because the end users that these features claim to serve will already have the necessary features on their computer, either as a built-in feature or as an additional piece of software that the user needs to access not only the Web but all software.

On this latter point, it is a mistake to believe that the features provided by the overlay widget will be of much use by end users because if those features were necessary to use the website, they'd be needed for all websites that the user interacts with. Instead, the widget is  —at best—redundant functionality with what the user already has.

Strengths and weaknesses of automated repair

While some automated repair is possible, customers should be discouraged from using an overlay as a long-term solution.

Some overlay products have capabilities aimed at providing accessibility repairs to the underlying page on which the overlay is added. These repairs are applied when the page loads in the user's browser.

While it is true that a non-trivial array of accessibility problems can be repaired in this manner, the nature, extent, and accuracy of such repair are limited by a number of important factors:

In addition to the above, overlays do not repair content in Flash, Java, Silverlight, PDF, HTML5 Canvas, SVG, or media files.

An additional class of product exists, which only perform automated repairs and are marketed as a temporary solution. These include Amaze by Deque Systems, Alchemy by Level Access, and Sentinel by Tenon.

For purposes of this document, these products aren't considered to be in the same class of product as the overlays that provide widgets. The most notable difference, beyond the lack of a “widget” is that Amaze, Alchemy, and Sentinel are understood by their manufacturers as being intended for use as an interim solution.

Fitness for achieving compliance with accessibility standards

While the use of an overlay may improve compliance with a handful of provisions in major accessibility standards, full compliance cannot be achieved with an overlay.

Among the many claims made by overlay vendors is the claim that the use of their product will bring the site into compliance with accessibility standards such as WCAG 2.x, related and derivative standards, and laws that mandate compliance with those standards.

Conformance to a standard means that you meet or satisfy the ‘requirements’ of the standard. In WCAG 2.0 the ‘requirements’ are the Success Criteria. To conform to WCAG 2.0, you need to satisfy the Success Criteria, that is, there is no content which violates the Success Criteria. Understanding WCAG 2.1: Understanding Conformance

Given that conformance is defined as meeting all requirements of the standard, these products' documented inability to repair all possible issues means that they cannot bring a website into compliance. Products marketed with such claims should be viewed with significant scepticism.

Privacy of personal data

Adding an overlay to your site may run counter to end users' preference for privacy and may create risk of noncompliance with GDPR, UK GDPR, CCPA, et al.

Overlays that automatically enable certain settings, like those for screen reader or speech recognition users, do so by detecting when an assistive technology is running on the device. This exposes the fact that the person using the device at the time has a disability. In certain cases, like screen reader users where the majority are blind or have low vision, it exposes even more detail about the nature of their disability. Like age, ethnic background, or preferred gender, disability is sensitive personal information. It is not data that should be collected without the informed consent of the person it belongs to.

Some overlays have been found to persist users' settings across sites which use the same overlay. This is done by setting a cookie on the user's computer. When the user enables a setting for an overlay feature on one site, the overlay will automatically turn on that feature on other sites. While the overlay company might think they're doing good by the end user, the big privacy problem is that the user never opted in to be tracked and there's also no ability to opt-out. Due to this lack of an opt-out (other than explicitly turning off that setting) this creates General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) risk for the overlay customer.

In their own words

Many users with disabilities have expressed strong words of dissatisfaction with overlay products. As shown below, overlays themselves may have accessibility problems significant enough for users to take steps to actively block overlays from appearing at all.

Please note: while this section may mention specific vendors, these comments are par-for-the-course when it comes to the user experience provided by overlay widgets which have, in themselves, a pattern of negatively impacting the user experience.

...assuming your tool can do a good job making something accessible, it can do an even better job making something accessible running directly on the user's machine having access to machine code and machine APIs DerekRiemer
...I finally managed to gain access to my @NameCheap account by blocking #AccessiBe in my Windows Hosts file. I should not need to do this to use the Internet. AccessiBe needs to AccessiBeGone WilfSplodNokit
...I know with 100% certainty, any site which has deployed an overlay in the past year and a half has been less useable for both my wife and me—both blind. GeauxEnder
...Still a pain to even try reading the article on a mobile device because of the constant interruption every few seconds. Considering every site using your service also has this problem… Nope. Big_D01
...Making a webpage accessible does take work, and simply telling a business they can install your plugin is absolutely foolish, you build, and design accessibility in to a webpage using WCAG standards. w9fyi
...Suggesting one line of code is cheap so you should do it by inference suggests disabled lives aren't worth investing in either. #a11y Kevmarmol_CT
@AccessiBe Just to demonstrate my good faith, here's a quick free audit of You capture "tab" which is the standard way to navigate. There's no way to not enable your overlay if I want to navigate the page. Once the overlay is enabled, wild things happen. eluberoff
#AccessiBe makes sites harder to use by getting in the way of browsing and changing access barriers on a page, not fixing them. A student and I came across an "enhanced" website and to my shame, we left because navigating that mess was beyond my skills, on that day. turtlecatpurrz
Accessibility overlays are not the answer, and AccessiBe is no exception. As a screen reader user, numerous sites have become less usable for me with this overlay. Discrediting reputable accessiblity professionals and advocates will not sway me on this view. SingingTigress
An die Screen Reader nutzenden Follower: Vielleicht habt ihr schon von #Accessibe gehört, einem Overlay, das behauptet, Seiten, in denen es eingebunden ist, zugänglicher zu machen. Ich möchte nicht näher ins Detail gehen. Kurz gesagt: Kompletter Blödsinn. Finger weg! MarcoZehe
Automated solutions which promise to make your site accessible can't. It takes more than automation to achieve this requirement. You won't be safe from liability. you will almost assuredly negatively impact your customers with disabilities. twithoff
Every time I go on a website and I hear the #accessiBe notification that this site is adjusted to my screen reader, I know that my blocker isn't working properly, and I'm in for a hellish experience on that particular website. BorrisInABox
I tried using this @AccessiBe site with VoiceOver in Chrome on iOS. The 4-star rating is announced as "unpronounceable" 🤦‍♀️" racheleditullio
I wrote an email to their customer service detailing that I can not use their site due to the overlay, but… I really am disappointed, but I hope they listen. @Goodfair_ - please stop using AccessiBe. kit_flowerstorm
I'm not an accessibility expert, just a screen reader user with decent skills telling you that this thread is spot on and my experience with #AccessiBe is that it makes sites with accessibility issues even harder to work around. atfarnum
...If you are blind or low vision and rely on assistive technologies like screen readers, you may have begun finding popular websites becoming less usable… this page describes how to ban AccessiBe from ever reaching your computer… smartudlab
OK, this seems very wrong to me. A local chain here named Fleet Farm is now using AccessiBe. It makes a mess of the search for location feature. This is what I now get on the start of the result page. kellylford
Thank goodness Firefox blocks their accessibility detection. For me, focus jumps all over the place with #AccessiBe enabled. When it's disabled, it behaves itself. mhorspool
There are 0 automated tools that can tetect accessibility problems accurately at anything above 30% of the time. 0. This is commonly known by anyone who's been in this space for at least a week. #AccessiBe cswordpress
There's a perfectly practical tool for making websites accessible. It's called a programmer. The needs that matter in making a website accessible are those of the users. If you can't meet those, then you can't meet the basic costs of doing business. WTBDavidG
When #AccessiBe is enabled, the page is flooded with headings. Lots of heading level 2's. The title of each phone remains a heading in both versions of the page, but with it enabled, things like cost, display, and all the other components of the tables become headings as well. CatchTheseWords


No overlay product on the market can cause a website to become fully compliant with any existing accessibility standard and therefore cannot eliminate legal risk.

Accessibility on the Web is a big challenge, both for owners of websites and for the users of those websites. The invention of novel approaches to resolving this challenge is to be commended.

However, in the case of overlays—especially those which attempt to add widgets that present assistive features—the challenge is not being met. Even more problematic is the deceptive marketing provided by some overlay vendors who promise that implementing their product will give their customer's sites immediate compliance with laws and standards.

The ineffectiveness of overlays is something that has broad agreement among accessibility practitioners, per the WebAIM Survey of Web Accessibility Practitioners which found:

A strong majority (67%) of respondents rate these tools as not at all or not very effective. Respondents with disabilities were even less favorable with 72% rating them not at all or not very effective, and only 2.4% rating them as very effective.

Statement from sponsors and signatories to this fact sheet

As a result of the above information:

  1. We will never advocate, recommend, or integrate an overlay which deceptively markets itself as providing automated compliance with laws or standards.
  2. We will always advocate for the remediation of accessibility issues at the source of the original error.
  3. We will refuse to stay silent when overlay vendors use deception to market their products.
  4. More specifically, we hereby advocate for the removal of accessiBe, AudioEye, UserWay, User1st, MK-Sense, MaxAccess, FACIL'iti, and all similar products and encourage the site owners who've implemented these products to use more robust, independent, and permanent strategies to making their sites more accessible.

Signed by:

Some overlay vendors have attempted to frame the overlay factsheet as an effort by their competitors to discredit them. Such overlay claims are a textbook case of an attempt to gaslight people to deflect criticism.

As of today, the signatories to the overlay factsheet include:

In short, the list of signatories below are people who are experts in this field & have dedicated their professional careers to the improvement of accessibility or are end users with disabilities (or both). Discounting the names listed below as "competitors" is both inaccurate and misses the point: overlays are not an effective means of ensuring accessibility - a point on which all of the people below agree.

  1. Karl Groves, Founder and President,
  2. Matt King, Chair, W3C ARIA Authoring Practices Task Force and W3C ARIA and Assistive Technologies Community Group
  3. Bill Dengler, totally blind computer science student and code contributor to the NVDA screen reader, Swarthmore College, Philadelphia
  4. Nicolas Steenhout, Independent accessibility consultant
  5. Rian Rietveld, web accessibility specialist, Level Level
  6. Weston Thayer, Founder, Assistiv Labs
  7. Denis Boudreau, Accessibility consultant
  8. Meryl K. Evans, accessibility advocate
  9. Makoto Ueki, Web accessibility consultant, Infoaxia
  10. Michael Spellacy, Accessibility Consultant
  11. Helen Burge, Accessibility Consultant
  12. Léonie Watson, Director, TetraLogical
  13. Eric Eggert, Co-Founder, outline
  14. Dale Reardon - Founder & CEO of TravelForAll.Guide
  15. Jason Gill - Certified Web Accessibility Specialist
  16. Michael Ausbun, CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  17. Ronny Hendriks - Accessibility Consultant, Toegankelijk Online
  18. Charles Hall, Invited Expert W3C AGWG
  19. Hai Nguyen Ly, Accessibility Advocate
  20. David Luhr, Accessibility Consultant
  21. Justin L. Yarbrough, Accessibility Specialist, Rio Salado College
  22. Hidde de Vries, accessibility specialist and front-end developer
  23. James Fleeting, Technical Director, Monkee-Boy
  24. Alex Tait, Accessibility Specialist, AT Fresh Solutions
  25. Michael Fairchild, Accessibility consultant
  26. Gijs Veyfeyken, web accessibility specialist, Five Oaks
  27. Dennis Lembree, Web Axe & Easy Chirp
  28. Adrian Roselli
  29. Rob Whiting, Head of Research & Design, Merlan Ltd.
  30. Kitty Giraudel, Accessibility Specialist, Gorillas
  31. Derek Mohr, Front-end Developer, Mighty in the Midwest
  32. Alastair Campbell, Director of Accessibility, Nomensa
  33. Anders Fredericksen, Level Access
  34. Zoë Bijl, Senior Accessibility Engineer, CrowdStrike
  35. Jonathan Avila, Level Access
  36. Sheri Byrne-Haber, Senior accessibility evangelist
  37. Jared Smith, Associate Director, WebAIM
  38. 木達 一仁 (Kazuhito Kidachi)
  39. Yakim van Zuijlen, Designer
  40. Shannon Urban, Director of Accessibility, EVERFI
  41. Todd Libby, Accessibility Advocate and Consultant
  42. David Monnehay, Atalan
  43. Joschi Kuphal, CPWA & CEO, tollwerk
  44. Romain Deltour, web/accessibility/ebook specialist
  45. Craig Francis, Code Poets Limited
  46. Erik Gustafsson, Accessibility Specialist, Axess Lab
  47. Dan Payne, Accessibility consultant
  48. Ben Tillyer
  49. Belinda Dow, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  50. Matt Obee, Senior Product Designer and accessibility specialist, NearForm
  51. Florian Beijers, Accessibility Consultant, Developer, Screenreader User
  52. Donna Vitan, Design Systems Nerd
  53. Ruben Nic, Web Accessibility/Senior Engineer, Webflow
  54. Dennis Deacon, Accessibility Consultant
  55. Nicolas Loye, CTO, Actency
  56. Rachele DiTullio, accessibility engineer, CPWA
  57. Gerard K. Cohen, self
  58. Dr. Kate Deibel, Inclusion and Accessibility Librarian, Syracuse University Libraries
  59. Vincent Aniort, digital accessibility expert, Orange SA
  60. Arthur Rigaud, Accessibility Specialist and Front-End Developer
  61. Gary Jones, WordPress VIP
  62. Andrew Nevins, CPWA, Front-end developer
  63. Chris Heilmann, Principal Product Manager for Developer Tools
  64. Bruce Lawson, greedy accessibility consultant
  65. Peter Goes, Front-end developer, De Voorhoede
  66. Geoff Mortstock, Accessibility Consultant
  67. Marcus Herrmann, Web Accessibility Specialist and front-end developer
  68. Kelly Childs, Lead Developer, Be Accessible, Inc.
  69. Matthew Hallonbacka
  70. Kelly Wills, Access Technology Specialist, CPWA
  71. Joan Preston, Web Accessibility Coordinator, California State University, Long Beach
  72. Jon Gibbins, digital accessibility consultant, Dotjay Ltd
  73. Alicia Jarvis
  74. Anthony Fernando, CPWA, Accessibility QA Manager, Pearson
  75. Jennifer Strickland, Senior HCD + Accessibility Engineer at MITRE, Accessibility Consultant at Level Access
  76. Lainey Feingold - lawyer and author, Law Office of Lainey Feingold
  77. Andrew Hayward, Accessibility Engineer
  78. Jean Ducrot, Accessibility Engineer, CPWA
  79. Manuel Razzari - Accessibility educator, Buenos Aires National Technological University, Argentina
  80. Zack Kline, Accessibility Tester, ISoftStone
  81. Anna E. Cook - Senior Accessibility Designer
  82. Christophe Strobbe, researcher and lecturer in HCI and accessibility, Stuttgart Media University
  83. Eric Bailey, The A11Y Project Maintainer
  84. Andre Polykanine, software engineer, web accessibility specialist, screen reader user
  85. Ben Myers, Software Engineer
  86. Eric Bednarz, self
  87. Olivier Keul, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  88. Bogdan Cerovac, WAS, front-end developer and accessibility lead
  89. Lori Samuels, Accessibility Director, NBCUniversal
  90. Ryan Leisinger - UX Manager Department of Licensing WA State
  91. Ian Lloyd, Accessibility Engineer
  92. Pavel Pomerantsev, web accessibility engineer, Squarespace
  93. Dominik Wilkowski, People Director, Thinkmill
  94. Rowdy Rabouw, web and app developer, double-R webdevelopment
  95. Jen Smith, Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  96. Toufic Sbeiti, accessibility advocate
  97. Amy Carney, CPWA, accessibility consultant & front-end web developer, Digilou
  98. Carly Gerard CPWA, Web Accessibility Engineer, Western Washington University
  99. Haben Girma, Human Rights Lawyer
  100. Katriel Paige, Accessibility Consultant, Fox Design Studios LLC
  101. Adrianne Mallett, Software Engineer
  102. Krista Greear
  103. Kim Krause Berg, CPACC Accessibility and UX Consultant
  104. Joseph Dolson
  105. Ashley Hannan, Accessibility Advocate
  106. Cara Hall, Accessibility Advocate
  107. Paul Grenier, Web Developer
  108. Glenda Sims, Accessibility consultant
  109. JF Hector Labram, WAS, Principal Front-End Engineer, Kooth Plc
  110. Anne-Mieke Bovelett, Accessibility Advocate
  111. Radimir Bitsov, Web Accessibility and Performance Engineer
  112. Beatriz González Mellídez, Principal Product Design, CPWA, CPUX-RE
  113. Wilfred Nas, Product Owner / User interface consultant
  114. Shawn Thompson, Digital Accessibility Advocate
  115. Kim Johannesen, CEO and Accessibility Consultant, Shift ApS
  116. Marco Hengstenberg, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant
  117. Nicola Saunders, Front-End Developer, Studio 24 Ltd
  118. Rogier Barendregt, Senior digital product designer, Rg/B
  119. Jeremy Keith, Founder, Clearleft
  120. Kasper Isager, Software Developer
  121. Angela P. Ricci, Web Designer/ Front dev
  122. Matt Jiggins, Developer/Designer
  123. Stefan Wajda,, digital accessibility specialist
  124. Sina Bahram, President, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  125. Kristina England, Accessibility Specialist, University of Massachusetts President's Office
  126. Birkir Gunnarsson, CPWA, digital accessibility lead
  127. Kerstin Probiesch, Accessibility Consultant
  128. Radek Pavlíček, CPWA, Accessibility Specialist, Teiresias Centre Masaryk University &
  129. Billy Gregory, TPGi
  130. Thomas Logan
  131. Brian Elton, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  132. Kevin Mar-Molinero, Director of Experience Technologies Kin+Carta Connect, Member of BIMA Inclusive Design Council.
  133. Crystal Preston-Watson, Quality and Accessibility Engineer
  134. Bob Dodd, Accessibility Consultant
  135. Chauncey McAskill
  136. David Swallow, Accessibility Engineer
  137. Marko Milanović, Developer,
  138. Joe Lamyman, Development Specialist
  139. Kevin Ackley, Accessibility Tech Consultant
  140. Stephen Clower, Software Developer and Accessibility Lead, Desmos, Inc.
  141. Nicolas Chardon, Digital Accessibility Expert
  142. Steve Faulkner, Chief Accessibility Officer, TPGi
  143. Andy Bell, Designer and Educator
  144. Patrick H. Lauke, Accessibility Trash Panda
  145. Yann Kozon, Front End Web Developer and Accessibility Consultant, Freelance
  146. Chris Taylor, Web Nerd, Yorkshire Twist
  147. Miriam Suzanne, Agency Co-Founder & W3C Invited Expert
  148. Robert Jolly, Product Manager & Accessibility Strategist
  149. Lena Chandelier, Accessibility Expert, Front-end Developer
  150. Thomas Parisot, Old Timey Web Developer
  151. Jesse Menn, Principal Web Developer
  152. Wendy Reid, Accessibility Lead
  153. Scott O'Hara, Accessibility Engineer/Consultant
  154. Phil Springall
  155. Dr Carl Myhill, Director, User Experience Design Limited
  156. Sumner M. Davenport, Specialist Web Accessibility
  157. Dana Byerly, Interaction Designer
  158. Jamie Knight, self
  159. Matt Richardson, Web Accessibility Expert
  160. Josephine Schwebler, Senior Consultant Accessibility / Accessible Documents
  161. Vegard Haugstvedt, Front-end Developer / Accessibility Specialist, Webstep
  162. Mikołaj Rotnicki,, accessibility specialist
  163. William Bunch - Accessibility Consultant
  164. Kris Rivenburgh, Chief Accessibility & Legal Officer, Essential Accessibility
  165. Paul Kruczynski, Front-End UX/UI Developer
  166. Matthias Weston, Accessibility-Centered Freelance Developer
  167. Mat Harris, Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  168. Lindsey Dragun, Developer / Accessibility Advocate
  169. Michail Yasonik, Senior Software Engineer
  170. Marcy Sutton, Independent Web Developer and Accessibility Specialist
  171. Talita Pagani, Accessibility and UX Consultant, Research Scientist in Web Accessibility for Neurodiversity
  172. Aaron Chu, UI Engineer + Disability & Design Researcher
  173. Adam Saucier, Web Accessibility Specialist
  174. Arnaud Delafosse, Web Quality & Accessibility Consultant, Temesis
  175. J.J. Meddaugh, Owner, A. T. Guys.
  176. Nicki Rios, CPWA, Founder, Accessibility Consultant & Engineer, Nock & Sparrow
  177. John E Brandt, head dude, jebswebs
  178. Heather Gray, Website Developer
  179. Santina Croniser, Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware
  180. Stein Erik Skotkjerra, Accessibility consultant, CEO, Inklusio
  181. Bruno Pulis, Accessibility Advocate, Creator of Awesome A11y
  182. Brittany Roots, Accessibility Consultant
  183. James Nurthen, Accessibility Engineer & co-chair ARIA Working Group
  184. Shell Little, Inclusive Design Lead and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  185. Carlos Eriksson, Accessibility Lead, Studio 24
  186. Steven Mouret, Digital Accessibility Expert
  187. Adam Page, UX Designer
  188. David A. Kennedy, Designer and Accessibility Weekly curator
  189. Marc Solomon, self
  190. Ron Stauffer, Founder, Lieder Digital
  191. Nick Caskey, CPWA & Senior Accessibility Engineer, VMware Inc.
  192. Devon Persing, Technical Program Manager and Digital Accessibility Specialist
  193. Brian Olore, Developer
  194. Kathleen McMahon, Engineer, Designer, and Speaker
  195. Will Slone, Accessibility Engineer
  196. Peter Weil, Web Developer
  197. Brennan Young, Accessibility specialist, Laerdal Medical
  198. Emanuela Gorla, Accessibility Specialist, TetraLogical
  199. Paweł Choiński, Front-End Developer
  200. Eric Hind, Accessibility Specialist
  201. Sylvie Duchateau, Web Accessibility Consultant, Access42
  202. Rachel Cherry, Accessibility Specialist, Director of WPCampus, and Director of Technology and Design, Equal Made
  203. Lucy Greco, Accessaces
  204. John Lukosky, Accessibility Specialist
  205. Jennifer Grant, Senior Accessibility Engineer, Educational Testing Service
  206. Károly Szántai, WAS
  207. Sarah E. Lynch, Accessibility Engineer
  208. L. Jeffrey Zeldman
  209. Paul Shryock, WordPress Engineer, NBA
  210. Nick Colley
  211. Carlin Scuderi, Front End Developer
  212. Nicolas Zerr, Digital Accessibility Expert
  213. Derek Featherstone, Chief Experience Officer, Level Access
  214. Corey Megown, Front-End Developer
  215. Marcelo Sales, Accessibility Specialist, RD (Raia Drogasil)
  216. Scott Vinkle, Accessibility Specialist, Shopify
  217. Barry Pollard, Developer
  218. Anand Chowdhary, Creative Technologist & Entrepreneur
  219. Christian Alden Jacobs, UX Strategist
  220. Edward Pritchard, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  221. Hadley Luker, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  222. John Foliot (JF), Independent Accessibility Specialist / W3C Contributor
  223. Cullan Bonilla, Accessibility Specialist
  224. EJ Mason, Accessibility Specialist
  225. Michele Williams, Accessibility and UX Consultant
  226. Hala Anwar, Inclusive Design Consultant
  227. Johnny Taylor, Accessibility Advocate
  228. Joel McKinnon, Accessibility Specialist
  229. Olivier Nourry, General Manager & CAO, Be Player One
  230. Ross Mullen, Director, CANAXESS
  231. Steve Woodson, Developer
  232. Joe Yang, Senior UX Designer – Accessibility, ServiceNow
  233. Lee Bartholomew, Website Designer
  234. Amanda J. Rush, Self
  235. John H. Carson Jr., retired escalations specialist, Freedom Scientific
  236. Ka Li, Accessibility Consultant
  237. Adele M. Beeby, Web Manager, Leicester City Council
  238. James Scholes, Director of Digital Accessibility, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  239. Ian Kersey, Accessibility Analyst, Level Access
  240. Aaron Gustafson, Web Standards & Accessibility Advocate
  241. Wally Zielinski, WAS, Dell Technologies
  242. Martin Mengele, Front End Developer & Accessibilty Consultant, @accessabilly)
  243. Gaël Poupard, Lead dev, OnePoint
  244. Philip Kiff, D4K Communications
  245. Tim Kraut, Senior Frontend Developer, AWESOME! Software GmbH
  246. Jennifer Panighetti, Web Developer
  247. Jasmine Kaul, Founder and Digital Content Consultant, Happy Words
  248. Ian Hamilton, accessibility specialist
  249. Margie Chubin, Software Engineer
  250. Joe Lanman, Designer
  251. Jude Robinson, Global Head of Frontend Development, Springer Nature
  252. Luc Poupard, Front-end designer and WordPress developer, Proton Technologies
  253. David Sloan, UX Research Lead, TPGi
  254. Grady Thompson, Student, University of Washington
  255. Claudio Luis Vera, Accessibility leader, analyst, and public speaker
  256. Emmanuelle Gutiérrez y Restrepo, Fundación Sidar - Acceso Universal
  257. Homer Gaines, UI Engineer, and Accessibility Specialist
  258. Carolina Aguilera, Accessibility Consultant, Chile
  259. Kara Franco, CPWA, Accessibility Engineer
  260. Sarah Higley, Accessibility Specialist & Software Developer, Microsoft
  261. Benoît Dequick, Front-end dev & RGAA expert
  262. Peter Bossley, self
  263. Jennifer Gorfine, UX Engineer & Web Accessibility Specialist
  264. Heather Migliorisi, Web Accessibility Specialist
  265. Thinh-Lay Wonesky, Accessibility Consultant, Allerlay Wonesky Media
  266. Robert Kingett, Blind author
  267. Frances Jurek, Software Engineer
  268. Owen Edwards, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Level Access
  269. Jennifer Zhang, Senior Accessibility Program Manager, Microsoft
  270. Michael Vaughn, Accessibility Manager
  271. Desiree White
  272. Marco Salsiccia, Accessibility Specialist, Lyft
  273. Carter Temm, Accessibility Consultant
  274. Silvia Ceria, Interior Designer and Content Creator, DforDesign
  275. Maurizio Lepora, Full-Stack Developer, Lemaur
  276. Jared Clayton, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  277. Dirk Ginader, UX Engineer, Google
  278. Cordelia McGee-Tubb, Accessibility Engineer
  279. Ethan Marcotte, web designer, author of "Responsive Web Design"
  280. Jory Cunningham, Accessibility Engineer
  281. Lee White, Front-End & Accessibility Engineer
  282. Richard Boardman, Senior Director, Product Accessibility
  283. David Peter, Software Engineer
  284. Stefan Judis, Web Developer
  285. Dean Birkett, UX Designer & Accessibility Consultant
  286. Myles Lewando, Web Developer & Accessibility Specialist
  287. Michael Dowden, CEO, Andromeda Galactic Solutions, author of "Approachable Accessibility"
  288. Abdullah Norozi Iranzad, Web Developer
  289. Allison Ravenhall, Accessibility Consultant
  290. Ian Pouncey, Director, TetraLogical
  291. Chancey Fleet, Technology Educator
  292. Amanda Mace General Manager, Web Key IT
  293. Wendy Torres, Senior Instructional Technologist
  294. Janos Sitar, Web Accessibility Specialist, Central 1 Credit Union
  295. Dave Bahr, CEO of In-Sightful Living
  296. Momin Pasha Mohammed, CPWA, Accessibility Consultant
  297. Holly Scott-Gardner, usability assessor and disability rights advocate
  298. Sara Cousins, Mighty Spark Design
  299. Roger Fracé, Quality Assurance Specialist
  300. Pierre Albert, Accessibility consultant, Temesis
  301. Colleen Gratzer, Creative Boost and Gratzer Graphics LLC
  302. Kara Goldfinch
  303. Sally Thoun, Accessibility Consultant
  304. Ajaz Mohammed, Accessibility Test Consultant, HCL Canada Inc.
  305. Vincent Martin, Usercessible, LLC.
  306. Jessie Lorenz
  307. Amy Mason, Access Technology Specialist, San Francisco Lighthouse for the Blind
  308. Nadia Rasul, CPACC, Front-end Developer and Accessibility Lead
  309. Catherine M. Stager, Accessibility and Assistive Technology Specialist, Front Range Community College
  310. Avi Chandiramani, Program Manager for Accessible Technology Services, San Francisco State University
  311. Wink Harner Professor of Adaptive Technology In Higher Education/CUNY graduate school
  312. Annie Heckel, Lead Accessibility Auditor, Online ADA
  313. Courtney Heitman, Technical Accessibility Specialist
  314. Simon Bonaventure, Accessibility consultant, Empreinte Digitale
  315. Eric Wright
  316. Deborah Kaplan, Accessibility Lead, Suberic Networks
  317. Carie Fisher, Sr. Accessibility consultant, Deque
  318. Scott Boren, Accessibility manager
  319. Josie Davidson, Associate Accessibility Specialist
  320. Matt Campbell, Chief Technology Officer, Pneuma Solutions
  321. Quentin Bellanger, Front-end developer, /tmp
  322. Al Romano, Web Developer, Virtually(Creative)
  323. Derek Riemer, Frontend web application Developer, NVDA screen reader contributor
  324. Isabel Del Castillo, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Prime Access Consulting, Inc.
  325. Nic Chan, Front-End Developer
  326. Jeremy Neander, Senior Front End Engineer
  327. Nick Croft, Senior Full Stack Web Developer, WAS, CPACC, CPWA, 508 TT
  328. Dag Eikesdal, web developer & accessibility specialist
  329. Dylan M. Rafaty, Disability Rights Activist and Head of Accessibility Strategy & Partnerships at C-Hear, Inc.
  330. Randi Strunk, self
  331. Jörg Morsbach, anatom5
  332. Thomas Logan, Founder and CEO, Equal Entry
  333. Lindsay Reddick, self
  334. Mike Calvo, self
  335. Molly E. Holzschlag, Web Educator and Historian
  336. Armony Altinier, CEO & Accessibility Lead, Koena
  337. Olivier Camon, Web developer
  338. Liz Hare, PhD, Quantitative Geneticist, Dog Genetics LLC
  339. Luce Carević, Accessibility expert, Access42
  340. Roman Mkrtchian, Web developer, Koena
  341. Tori Clark, Accessibility Evangelist and Executive Director, Digital A11ies
  342. Sarah Jagrowski, Associate Product Designer, FiscalNote
  343. Jay Miles, Product Designer
  344. Benjamin Michoux, Front-end Engineer
  345. Daman Wandke, CEO/Founder, Wandke Consulting
  346. Laine Amoureux, CPWA, Independent Consultant, Amoureux AT Consulting
  347. Christian Vogler, Professor and Director, Technology Access Program, Gallaudet University
  348. Kevin Erickson, Accessibility Services Manager, Ablr
  349. Sanjay Nasta, CEO, Microassist
  350. Sue Brettell, Branding & UX Designer
  351. Steve Decker, self
  352. Fady Rizk, self
  353. Philip Fortier, Director, Perficient
  354. Natalie Stroud, self
  355. Kalib Watson, Accessibility Engineer II, Jackson
  356. Ryan Dudek, Software Engineer
  357. Jenia Walker, Microsoft
  358. Merrie McGaw, Microsoft
  359. Nir Baligar, Accessibility Engineering Lead, Microsoft
  360. Rob Gallo, Microsoft
  361. Maxime Preaux, Frontend Developer
  362. Mike Schwartz, Component Library Developer/Accessibility SME
  363. Eilana Benish, authorized Accessibility consultant from Israel
  364. Mohammad Suliman, blind master's degree computer science student, Tel Aviv University
  365. Shawn Hooper, Director of IT,
  366. Jim Allan, Accessibility Coordinator
  367. Trevor Attenberg, Access technology specialist, Portland community college
  368. Sandy Feldman, Self
  369. Geof Collis, Accessibility Advocate
  370. Martin Courcelles, Martin Assist Inc.
  371. Cynthia Bennett, Accessibility Researcher, Carnegie Mellon University
  372. Gayle Vivona, UW Writer, consultant, designIMPACT
  373. David Best, Accessibility IT Specialist and Advocate
  374. Alice Packard, Self
  375. Shawn Welker, Access Technology Apprentice, MABVI
  376. Soheil Varamini, CPWA, Accessibility Analyst, Microassist
  377. Marvin Hunkin, self
  378. Alison Walden, Accessibility Specialist, Sapient
  379. Geetha Somasundaram, Accessibility Specialist, Thomson Reuters
  380. Jon Plummer, Director of User Experience, Concentric Sky
  381. Jason Neel, Senior Web Developer, West Virginia University
  382. Angela Hooker, self
  383. Tommy Feldt, CPWA, Accessibility consultant, Useit
  384. Ida Franceen, Developer
  385. Jean-Claude Simpson, Front-end developer, Mangoweb
  386. Holly Schroeder, UX Researcher and Writer, a11y
  387. Roel Van Gils, WAS, Co-founder Eleven Ways
  388. Sara Soueidan, independent Web UI and design systems engineer
  389. Clive Loseby, Owner, Access by Design
  390. Afnizar Nur Ghifari, Product Designer
  391. Laura Bentz, CPACC, User Experience Interaction Designer, a well-known Fortune 500 banking institution
  392. Sarah Pulis, Director Accessibility Services, Intopia
  393. Adem Cifcioglu, Director Accessible Technologies, Intopia
  394. Stewart Hay, Managing Director, Intopia
  395. Chris Pycroft, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  396. Julie Grundy, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  397. Robin Whittleton, Engineering Manager
  398. Justin Wong, Full-Stack Developer, Project COSMIC Limited
  399. Jana Uhrich, Costco Wholesale
  400. Will Buckingham, Senior Front-End Engineer / Lead Accessibility Engineer, Prescriptive Data
  401. Doug Hayman, Accessibility Specialist & Trusted Tester
  402. Jules Ernst, Digital Accessibility Consultant, 200 OK
  403. Cory Joseph, self
  404. Amanda Ryan, Academic Technologist
  405. Sébastien Delorme, CEO, Ideance
  406. Nicolas Hoffmann, Senior Front-End developer / Accessibility advocate
  407. Yvain Liechti, Design System Engineer, UKG
  408. Sébastien Picq, Senior Front-End Engineer / Accessibility consultant
  409. Robin Massart, Policy Assistant on the Web Accessibility Directive, European Commission
  410. Chris M Law, Consultant, Accessibility Track
  411. Asaf Kuller , Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel,
  412. Ray Schwartz, Accessibility Consultant, InRhythm
  413. Guy Hickling, Freelance Accessibility Consultant
  414. Mario Vasquez, UX Designer
  415. Jérémy Renard, webdesigner / front-end developer
  416. Jan Pettersson, UI developer
  417. Jan Maarten, Designer & Accessibility Specialist
  418. Benjamin de Oostfreese, Front-end web developer
  419. Zhiyang Ong, Ph.D. student, Texas A&M University
  420. Caroline Desrosiers, Founder & CEO of Scribely
  421. Anthony LADEUIL, Consultant Accessibilité, Clever Age
  422. Danielle Sheffler, Accessibility Consultant
  423. George McKinlay Accessibility Consultant
  424. Jean-Baptiste Audras, WordPress Core team representative, former WordPress Accessibility team representative, Whodunit Agency head of technology, France
  425. Aaron Jorbin, Product and Engineering Leader
  426. Ethan Holliger, Accessibility Engineer
  427. Mike Vogel, Accessibility Consultant / UX Engineer
  428. Karli Yeoman, Accessibility Engineer, Expedia Group
  429. Carmen Matthews, Accessibility Specialist
  430. Kalani Helekunihi, Disabled Scientist
  431. Mark Boyden, IT Consultant, Web Developer, FOSS Contributor
  432. Andy Marino, Lead Developer, Unity Web Agency
  433. Alisa Herr, CEO, Unity Web Agency
  434. Jacqueline Pugliese, Accessibility Consultant
  435. Maurício Pereiro, Quality Assurance Analyst in Digital Accessibility
  436. Dr. Keith Newton. Technical Program Manager - Accessibility, eBay
  437. Franck Letrouvé, CEO, pixFL
  438. Tema Smith-Bosken, Senior A11y SME and Digital Marketing Senior Advisor Cigna
  439. Attila Bodnár, Web Developer, Accessibility Engineer
  440. Richard Thiel, Frontend Engineer & Accessibility Advocate,
  441. Stefan Farnetani, Digital Accessibility Specialist & CEO, mindscreen
  442. Lukáš Hosnedl, freelance translator, dev and accessibility consultant
  443. Frank Reding, Development Manager & Accessibility Advocate, Shopify
  444. Michael Telgkamp, Digital Accessibility Specialist & Developer, mindscreen
  445. Ginger Claassen, accessibility engineer / consultant
  446. Duff Johnson CEO, PDF Association
  447. Steve Green Managing Director Test Partners Ltd
  448. Jennifer Grenier, Software Engineer
  449. Okuto Oyama, Front-end Designer & Accessibility Advocate, Internet Watcher
  450. Quin Marilyn, programmer and accessibility advocate.
  451. Peter Quale, Lead Accessibility Consultant, Target Corp.
  452. Carlos Moreno, Software Engineer & Accessibility Advocate, Outsmartly
  453. Peter Heery, Accessibility Scotland
  454. Dirk Neyhart
  455. Lindsay Yazzolino, nonvisual accessibility designer, CVS Health
  456. Marc Haunschild, Accessibility Consultant, Author and Teacher
  457. David Murdoch, Principal Accessibility Consultant, Test Partners Ltd
  458. Tim Frick, President, Mightybytes
  459. Kathy Cahill, Associate Dean, Accessibility and Usability, MIT
  460. Greg McNeil, President/CEO, 216digital
  461. Bobby Graczyk, Accessibility Specialist, 216digital
  462. Joseph S. Levin, Portal Design
  463. Matthieu Marseille, Senior Front End Engineer and RGAA certified accessibility expert, ekino
  464. Asaf Kuller, Websites accessibility consultant, Kull-Air Studio, Israel
  465. Wilmer Rodriguez Vega, Digital Accessibility Consultant
  466. David Dias, Front-End UX/UI Developer & Accessibility Advocate, Kijiji
  467. Kathleen Burkhardt, self
  468. Koen Cornelis, Web Accessibility Specialist, Belgium
  469. Sophie Ragas, Web Accessibility Consultant
  470. Holger Dieterich, Chairman, Co-Founder Sozialhelden e.V.
  471. Sebbe Isaac Kurian, UX Designer
  472. Mike Gifford, CivicActions
  473. Jennifer Shepherd, web accessibility specialist
  474. Matthew Shaw, Managing Partner, Disability Solutions
  475. Rodrigo Sanchez, Senior Accessibility Specialist Square Enix West
  476. Amber DeRosa, Accessibility Lead
  477. Paweł Prot, UX and accessibility specialist
  478. Clément Fresneau, accessibility consultant for Empreinte Digitale
  479. Justin Ekis, IT Student, Southwest Tennessee Community College
  480. Joe Ortenzi, Lead Experience Designer, Australian Digital Health Agency
  481. Darren Bates, Global Accessibility and Inclusion Strategist, Darren Bates, LLC
  482. Wilmer Rodriguez Vega, consultant and evaluator for visual accessibility
  483. Claire Webber, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  484. May-Fei Lee, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  485. Jeff Smith, Senior Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  486. Neil Jarvis, Business Development, Intopia
  487. Zoe Haughton, Digital Accessibility Consultant, Intopia
  488. Andrew Arch, Principal Consultant, Intopia
  489. Sandyara Peres, Accessibility Consultant and Product Owner, everis
  490. Jeff Coburn, Web Services Manager, Institute for Community Inclusion
  491. Nicolas Dorigny, Senior Front End Developper and accessibility enthousiast, Dataetic
  492. Stephane Deschamps, Accessibility specialist and coordinator
  493. Anuradha Kumari, Accessibility Advocate
  494. Juanjo Montiel, independent accessibility consultant
  495. Roberto Scano - ICT Accessibility Expert
  496. Alistair Shepherd, Front End Developer and Accessibility Advocate
  497. Jens Oliver Meiert, engineering manager and author, former WCAG working group member
  498. Nikhil Vytla, Software Engineer & A11y Advocate, AWS
  499. Hector Osborne Rodriguez, Front End Development Manager & Accessiblity Lead, Accenture
  500. Fredrik Fischer, CWAE, Accessibility Consultant and Project Officer at Hilfsgemeinschaft der Blinden und Sehschwachen Österreichs.
  501. Benjy Stanton - Interaction designer
  502. Robert Precious - Lead Accessibility Specialist, THG
  503. Dean Holden, Accessibility Engineer
  504. Donna Lettow, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  505. Ronise Nepomuceno, Accessibility Manager, BT Consumer Digital
  506. Andrew Nordlund, Web Accessibility Specialist
  507. Émilie Viau, accessibility consultant and front-end developer
  508. Julianna Rowsell, Senior Inclusive Designer and Accessibility Advocate, Shared Services Canada
  509. Erin Lucas, Senior Director of Digital Accessibility, RedShelf
  510. Dominic Mazzoni, Software Engineer - Chrome Accessibility, Google
  511. Josh Kim, WAS, Senior Designer and Accessibility Specialist - Ad Hoc
  512. Goly Rabbanim, Authorized accessibilty service consultant & head of digital inclusion at The Open University of Israel
  513. Lauren Race, Accessibility Researcher, New York University; Accessibility Product Designer, Twitter
  514. Matt Northam, Senior Front End Developer and Accessibility Advocate, Pulselive
  515. Jayme Johnson, Accessibility Consultant and Trainer
  516. Daniel O'Mahony, Accessibility Engineer
  517. Ryan Magoon, Principal Front End Engineer, Advance Auto Parts
  518. Shane Popplestone, Accessibility tester.
  519. Tyler Rodick, student of cloud computing, Western Governors University
  520. Deborah Edwards-Oñoro, web designer and accessibility advocate
  521. Patrick Andrade, Assistive Technologist at The Chicago Lighthouse and Accessibility Advocate
  522. Soren Hamby, Senior Manager of UX and Digital Design at Benjamin Moore
  523. Nathan Weber, Thomson Reuters, UX manager
  524. Char James-Tanny, Accessibility Advocate
  525. Werner Rosenberger, MSc, CWAE, Certified WebAccessibility Expert, Projektleitung WACA - Web Accessibility Certificate Austria
  526. Riley MacIsaac, Quadriam, Design and Development Lead and Accessibility Specialist
  527. Marco Zehe, formerly of Freedom Scientific, Mozilla, NVDA and open web contributor, accessibility veteran
  528. Benoit Kogut, senior frontend dev
  529. Rupa Devi, Staff Product Design, Accessibility Specialist at Freshworks Tech
  530. Ugurcan (Ugi) Kutluoglu, Accessibility Lead, Carbon Health
  531. Romain Menke, Developer, Mr. Henry
  532. Michael Fienen, Senior Web Developer, founder of The Drunken UX Podcast
  533. Ady Stokes, A11y_Ady
  534. Michael Zapata, Accessibility Coordinator
  535. Mark McCarthy, MSIM, CPWA, Sr. Accessibility Engineer, University of Illinois
  536. Gareth Crossan, Digital Accessibility Engineer, Ireland
  537. Chris Smart, CPACC
  538. Charles Roper, Digital Development Manager
  539. Eeva-Jonna Panula, CPWA, Front End Developer, Accessibility Specialist
  540. Blake Reid, Clinical Professor, Colorado Law
  541. Bet Hannon, CEO BH Business Websites
  542. Meg Miller, Lead Developer & Accessibility Specialist for Bet Hannon Business Websites
  543. Michael Honey-Arcement, DevOps Engineer, Channel-Fusion
  544. Tobias Christian Jensen, Digital Accessibility Specialist
  545. Jeffrey H.S. Knaack, Digital Product Manager & Solutions Architect, NYS Digital Services
  546. Samm Delorey, Web Accessibility Specialist, University of Massachusetts Amherst
  547. Chris Yoong, Frontend Developer, Government Digital Service
  548. Lizzie Bruce, Content strategist specialising in readability, Cake Consultancy Ltd.
  549. Wojtek Kutyla, Independent User Experience Consultant and Trainer, Kutyla Design Ltd.
  550. Andy Andrews, University of Washington
  551. Andreas Jacobsen, CPWA, CEO, Inklud AS
  552. Kristian Munter Simonsen, CPWA, accessibility consultant, Inklud AS
  553. Jan McSorley, VP of Accessibility, Pearson Assessments
  554. Caryn Pagel, Sr. Digital Accessibility Specialist, Thomson Reuters
  555. Rain Breaw Michaels, CPWA, Interaction Designer - Central Accessibility, Google
  556. Saptak Sengupta, Inclusive Web Developer
  557. Kazuhiko Tsuchiya, web usability and accessibility expert

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